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  References for varieties of English


General

     Dialects of English
     Varieties of English
     Pidgins and Creoles

Britain and Ireland

     English in England
     Scots and Scottish English
     Welsh English
     Irish English

North America

     United States English
     Canadian English
     African American English
     Caribbean English

Africa

     West African English
     South African English
     East African English

Asia

     South Asian English
     South-East Asian English

Australasia and Oceania

     Australian English
     New Zealand English

This set of references is intended as a guide to varieties of English both within Britain and overseas. Courses on varieties of English are normally separate from those on the history of English, but it is important for students to grasp the relationship between the two. For one thing, overseas varieties emerged on the basis of historical stages of English in England, Scotland and Ireland. For another, the types of change which can be recognised overseas are of relevance for the linguistic analysis of varieties of English in England.

By clicking on the node of a tree on the left the associated bibliography is shown. You can copy items from any bibliography by simply selecting a stretch of text and via the appropriate option in the right-button mouse menu you can copy the selected text to the Windows clipboard (alternatively you can press Ctrl-C for ‘copy’). This can in turn be retrieved into any text such as one you edit with your own word processsor.

On the companion website Studying the History of English there is a comprehensive set of bibliographies with somewhat different references from those here, check the modules in the Bibliographies menu on the desktop of this website.


 

Dialects of English


Allen, Harold B. and Michael D. Linn (eds) 1986. Dialect and language variation. Orlando: FL.

Anderson, Peter M. 1987. A structural atlas of the English dialects. London.

Auer, Peter, F. Hinskens and Paul Kerswill (eds) 2005. Dialect change: Convergence and divergence in European languages. Cambridge: University Press.

Bailey, Richard and Manfred Görlach (eds) 1982. English as a world language. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Bauer, Laurie 2002. An introduction to international varieties of English. Edinburgh: University Press.

Brown, Gillian 1972. Phonological rules and dialect variation. Cambridge: University Press.

Burghardt, Lorraine H. (ed.) 1971. Dialectology: Problems and perspectives. Knoxville: TE.

Cheshire, Jenny and Dieter Stein (eds) 1997. Taming the vernacular. From dialect to written standard language. London: Longman.

Coupland, Nicolas 1992. Dialect in use. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Ellis, Stanley (ed.) 1968. Studies in honour of Harold Orton on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. Leeds Studies in English New Series. Vol.2. Leeds: University Press.

Fischer, Andreas and Daniel Amman 1996. An index to dialect maps of Great Britain. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Fishman, Joshua, Andrew W. Conrad and Alma Rubal-Lopez (eds) 1996. Post-imperial English. Status change in former British and American colonies.. Berlin.

Francis, W. Nelson 1983. Dialectology. An introduction. London: Longman.

Holloway, Charles E. 1996. Dialect death. The case of Brule Spanish. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Honey, John 1991. Does accent matter? The Pygmalion factor. London: Faber and Faber.

Hughes, Arthur and Peter Trudgill 1987. English accents and dialects. An introduction to social and regional varieties of British English. London: Edward Arnold.

Kallen, Jeffrey, L. F. Hinskens and J. Taeldeman (eds) 2000. Dialect convergence and divergence across European borders. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Kortmann, Bernd (ed.) 2004. Dialectology meets typology. Dialect grammar from a cross-linguistics perspective. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Kortmann, Bernd, Tanja Herrmann, Lukas Pietsch and Susanne Wagner 2004. A Comparative Grammar of British English Dialects: Agreement, Gender, Relative Clauses. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Linn, Michael D. 1998. Handbook of dialects and language variation. 2nd edition. London: Academic Press.

Lippi-Green, Rosina 1997. English with an accent: Language, ideology, and discrimination in the United States. London: Routledge.

Long, Daniel and Dennis Preston (eds) 2002. Handbook of perceptual dialectology. Vol 2. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Mattheier, Klaus (ed.) 2000. Dialect and migration in a changing Europe. Frankfurt: Lang.

Melchers, Gunnel and Nils-Lennart Johannesson (eds) 1994. Nonstandard varieties of language. Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell.

Orton, Harold and W.J. Halliday 1963. Survey of English Dialects. Leeds: E.J. Arnold.

Orton, Harold, Stewart Sanderson and John Widdowson (eds) 1996. The linguistic atlas of England. London: Routledge.

Petyt, K. Malcolm 1980. The study of dialect. An introduction to dialectology. London: Longman.

Preston, Dennis R. (ed) 1999. Handbook of perceptual dialectology. Vol 1. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Preston, Dennis R. 1989. Perceptual dialectology. Non-linguist’s views of areal linguistics. Topics in Sociolinguistics Vol. 7. Dordrecht.

Preston, Dennis R. 1996. American dialect research. Celebrating the 100th anniversary of the American Dialect Society. 1889-1989. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Trudgill, Peter 1983. On dialect. Social and geographical perspectives. Oxford: Blackwell.

Trudgill, Peter 1986. Dialects in contact. Oxford: Blackwell.

Trudgill, Peter and J. K. Chambers (eds) 1991. Dialects of English. Studies in grammatical variation. London: Longman.

Trudgill, Peter 1993. Dialects. Language Workbooks London: Routledge.

Trudgill, Peter and J. K. Chambers 1998. Dialectology. 2nd edition. Cambridge: University Press.

Trudgill, Peter 2002. The dialects of England. 2nd edition. Oxford: Blackwell.

Upton, Clive and Katie Wales (eds) 1999. Dialectal variation in British English. Proceedings of the Harold Orton Centenary Conference.. Leeds.

Viereck, Wolfgang (ed.) 1993-4. Historical dialectology and linguistic change. Vol.1 - 3. Stuttgart.

Viereck, Wolfgang, Karin Viereck and Heinrich Ramisch 2002. dtv-Atlas Englische Sprache. Frankfurt: Deutscher Taschenbuchverlag.

Wells, John C. 1982. Accents of English. 3 Vols. Cambridge: University Press.

Wolfram, Walt, Carolyn Temple Adger and Donna Christian 1999. Dialects in schools and communities. Mahwah: New Jersey.


 

Varieties of English


English World-Wide A Journal of Varieties of English, Heidelberg, later Amsterdam, 1980-

Vol. 1: Kortmann, Bernd and Clive Upton (eds) 2007. Varieties of English. Vol. 1: The British Isles. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Vol. 2: Schneider, Edgar (eds) 2007. Varieties of English. Vol. 2: The Americas and the Caribbean. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Vol. 3: Burridge, Kate and Bernd Kortmann (eds) 2007. Varieties of English. Vol. 3: The Pacific and Australasia. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Vol. 4: Mesthrie, Rajend (eds) 2007. Varieties of English. Vol. 4: Africa, South and Southeast Asia. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Bibliography


Anburger, L. and Heinz Kloss (eds) 1977. Deutsche Sprachkontakte in Übersee. Tübingen: Günther Narr.

Auer, Peter and Aldo di Luzio (eds) 1988. Variation and convergence. Studies in social dialectology. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Ayto, John and John Simpson 1992. The Oxford dictionary of modern slang. Oxford: University Press.

Bähr, Dieter 1974. Standard Englisch und seine geographische Varianten. München: Fink.

Bailey, Charles-James N. 1973. Variation and linguistic theory. Arlington: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Bailey, Richard W. and Manfred Görlach (eds) 1982. English as a world language. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Bauer, Laurie 2002. An introduction to international varieties of English. Edinburgh: University Press.

Beam, C. Richard 1982. Pennsylvania German Dictionary. English to Pennsylvania Dutch. Schaefferstown: PE.

Biber, Douglas 1988. Variation across speech and writing. Cambridge: University Press.

Bryson, Bill 1990. Mother tongue: The English language. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Chambers, J. K., Peter Trudgill and Natalie Schilling-Estes (eds) 2002. The handbook of language variation and change. Oxford: Blackwell.

Cheshire, Jenny (ed.) 1988. Neglected Englishes. New York: Blackwell.

Cheshire, Jenny, H. Münstermann and Bert Weltens (eds) 1989. Dialect and education. Some European perspectives. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Cheshire, Jenny (ed.) 1991. English around the world. Sociolinguistic perspectives. Cambridge: University Press.

Crystal, David 1998. English as a global language. Cambridge: University Press.

Dillard, Joey Lee (ed.) 1980. Perspectives on American English. The Hague: Mouton.

Dillard, Joey Lee 1992. A history of American English. London: Longman.

Dollinger, Stefan 2008. New-Dialect Formation in Canada. Evidence from the English modal auxiliaries. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Eckert, Penelope 1999. Language variation as social practice. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Edmondson, Jerold A., Crawford Feagin and Peter Mühlhäusler (eds) 1990. Development and diversity. Linguistic variation across time and space. A festschrift for Charles-James N.Bailey. Publications in Linguistics 93 University of Texas at Arlington: The Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Eggington, William and Helen Wren (eds) 1997. Language policy. Dominant English.. Amsterdam.

Ferguson, Charles and Shirley B. Heath (eds) 1981. Language in the USA. Cambridge: University Press.

Foulkes, Paul and Gerry Docherty (eds) 1999. Urban voices. Variation and change in British accents. London: Arnold.

Freeborn, Dennis, Peter French and David Langford 1993. Varieties of English. An introduction to the study of language. 2nd edition.

Frey, J. William 1981. A simple grammar of Pennsylvania Dutch. Lancaster: PE.

Görlach, Manfred 1991. Englishes. Studies in varieties of English 1984-1988. Varieties of English around the World Vol. 9. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Görlach, Manfred 1995. More Englishes. New studies in varieties of English 1988-1994. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Görlach, Manfred 1998. Even more Englishes. Studies 1996-1997. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Görlach, Manfred 2002. Still more Englishes. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Gramley, Stephan and Kurt-Michael Pätzold 1992. A survey of modern English. London: Routledge.

Gramley, Stephan 2001. The vocabulary of world English. London: Arnold.

Hansen, Klaus, Uwe Carls and Peter Lucko 1996. Die Differenzierung des Englischen in nationale Varianten. Berlin: Erich Schmidt.

Hechter, M. (ed.) 1975. Internal colonialism. The Celtic fringe in British national development. London.

Hickey, Raymond (ed) 2004. Legacies of colonial English. Cambridge: University Press.

Kachru, Yamuna and Larry E. Smith 2008. Cultures, Contexts, and World Englishes. London: Routledge.

Kachru, Braj, Yamuna Kachru and Cecil L. Nelson (eds) 2006. The Handbook of World Englishes. Oxford: Blackwell.

Kortmann, Bernd, Tanja Herrmann, Lukas Pietsch and Susanne Wagner 2004. A comparative grammar of British English dialects: Agreement, gender, relative Clauses. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Kortmann, Bernd, Kate Burridge, Rajend Mesthrie, Edgar W. Schneider and Clive Upton (eds) A Handbook of Varieties of English. Volume 1: Phonology, Volume 2: Morphology and Syntax. Berlin / New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Krapp, George Philip 1952. The English language in America. 2 vols. New York: Ungar Publishing.

Kurath, Hans 1972. Studies in area linguistics. Bloomington: IN.

Machan, Tim William and Charles T. Scott (eds) 1992. English in its social contexts. Oxford: University Press.

McArthur, Tom 1998. The English languages. Cambridge: University Press.

McArthur, Tom 2002. The Oxford guide to world English. Oxford: University Press.

McCrum, Robert, William Cran and Robert MacNeil 1992. The story of English. 2nd edition. London: Faber and Faber.

Melchers, Gunnel and Philip Shaw 1999. World Englishes. London: Arnold.

Mesthrie, Rajend and Rakesh M. Bhatt 2008. World Englishes. An Introduction to New Language Varieties. Cambridge: University Press.

Milroy, James and Lesley Milroy (eds) 1993. Real English. The grammar of the English dialects in the British Isles. Real Language Series London: Longman.

O’Donnell, William Robert and Loreto Todd 1991. Variety in contemporary English. 2nd edition. London: Routledge.

O’Sullivan, Patrick 1992. Patterns of migration. Leicester: University Press.

Parakrama, Arjuna 1995. De-hegemonizing language standards. Learning from (post)colonial Englishes about 'English’. London: Macmillan.

Pennycook, Alastair 1994. The cultural politics of English as an international language. London: Longman.

Platt, John, Heidi Weber and Ho Mian Lian 1984. The new Englishes. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Porter, A. N. (ed.) 1991. Atlas of British overseas expansion. London: Routledge.

Pride, John B. (ed.) 1980. New Englishes. Rowley: MA.

Ricento, Thomas (ed.) 2000. Ideology, politics and language policies. Focus on English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Roberts, Celia Evelyn Davies; Tom Jupp 1992. Language and discrimination. A study of communication in multi-ethnic workplaces. London: Longmans.

Ronowicz, Eddie and Colin Yallop (eds) 1999. English. One language.. London.

Ryan, Ellen Bouchard and Howard Giles (eds) 1982. Attitudes towards language variation. Social and applied contexts. The Social Psychology of Language 1. London.

Sanchez-Macarro, Antonia and Ronald Carter (eds) 1998. Linguistic choice across genres. Variation in spoken and written English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Siemund, Peter 2001. Pronominal gender in English regional varieties. A cross-linguistic perspective. London: Routledge.

Singh, Michael, Peter Kell and Ambigapathy Pandian 2002. Appropriating English. Innovation in the global business of English language teaching. Frankfurt: Lang.

Tabouret-Keller, Andrée et al. (eds) 1997. Vernacular literacy. A re-evaluation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Todd, Loreto and Ian Hancock 1990. International English usage. London: Routledge.

Trudgill, Peter 2004. New dialect formation. The inevitability of colonial Englishes. Edinburgh: University Press.

Trudgill, Peter (ed.) 1984. Language in the British Isles. Cambridge: University Press.

Trudgill, Peter and Jean Hannah 1982. International English. A guide to varieties of Standard English. London: Edward Arnold.

Upton, Clive, William Kretzschmar and Rafal Konopka 2003. Oxford dictionary of pronunciation for current English. Oxford: University Press.

Wächtler, Kurt 1977. Geographie und Stratifikation der englischen Sprache [Geography and stratification of the English language]. Düsseldorf: Bagel.

Watts, Richard A. Bex (eds) 1998. Standard English: The continuing debate. London: Routledge.

Wells, John 1982. Accents of English. 3 Vols. Cambridge: University Press.

Wittig, Kurt 1956. Phonetik des amerikanischen Englischen [The phonetics of American English]. Heidelberg: Winter.

Wolf, Hans-Georg 2001. English in Cameroon. Berlin: Mouton-de Gruyter.


 Pidgins and Creoles


Adone, Dany and Ingo Plag (eds) 1994. Creolization and language change. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

Alleyne, Mervyn C. 1980. Comparative Afro-American. Ann Arbor: MI.

Andersen, Roger (ed.) 1983. Pidginization and creolization as language acquisition. Rowley: MA.

Arends, Jacques, Pieter Muysken and Norval Smith (eds) 1994. Pidgins and creoles. An introduction. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Arends, Jacques (ed.) 1995. The early stages of creolisation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Baker, Philip (ed.) 1995. From contact to creole and beyond. London: University of Westminster Press.

Baker, Philip and Adrienne Bruyn (eds) 1999. St. Kitts and the Atlantic creoles. The texts of Samuel Augustus Mathews in perspective. London: University of Westminster Press.

Bickerton, Derek 1975. Dynamics of a creole system. Cambridge: University Press.

Bickerton, Derek 1981. Roots of language. Ann Arbor: Karoma.

Bickerton, Derek 1990. Language and species. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Bollée, Annegret 1977. Zur Entstehung der französischen Kreolendialekte im Indischen Ozean: Kreolisierung ohne Pidginisierung. Geneva: Droz.

Boretzky, Norbert 1983. Kreolsprachen, Substrate und Sprachwandel [Creole languages, substrates and language change]. Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz.

Byrne, Francis and Thom Huebner (eds) 1991. Development and structures of creoles languages. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Byrne, Francis and John Holm (eds) 1993. Atlantic meets Pacific. A global view of pidginization and creolization. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Carr, Elizabeth 1972. Da kine talk. From pidgin to standard English in Hawaii. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Cassidy, Frederic G. 1961. Jamaica talk. Three hundred years of the English language in Jamaica. London: Macmillan.

Cassidy, Frederic G. and Robert B. LePage 1980. Dictionary of Jamaica English. Cambridge: University Press.

Day, Richard R. (ed.) 1980. Issues in English creoles. Heidelberg: Julius Groos.

Day, Richard R. (ed.) 1980. Issues in English creoles. Papers from the 1975 Hawaii Conference. Varieties of English around the World G2. Heidelberg.

DeCamp, David and Ian Hancock (eds) 1974. Pidgins and creoles. Current trends and prospects. Washington: DC.

Dillard, Joey Lee (ed.) 1975. Perspectives on Black English. The Hague: Mouton.

Dillard, Joey Lee (ed.) 1976. Socio-historical factors in the formation of creoles. The Hague: Mouton.

Faraclas, Nicholas 1995. Nigerian Pidgin. London: Routledge.

Gilbert, Glenn G. (ed.) 1987. Pidgin and creole languages. Essays in memory of John E. Reinecke. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Greene, Laurie A. 1999. A grammar of Belizean creole. Compilations from two existing United States dialects. Frankfurt/New York: Peter Lang.

Hall, Robert A. 1966. Pidgin and creole languages. Ithaca: NY.

Hancock, Ian (ed.) 1977. Readings in creole studies. Ghent: Story-Scientia.

Hancock, Ian (ed.) 1986. Diversity and development in English-related creoles. Ann Arbor: MI.

Handler, Jerome S. and Frederick W.Lange 1978. Plantation slavery in Barbados: An archaelogical and historical investigation. Cambridge: MA.

Harlow, Vincent T. 1926. A history of Barbados.. Oxford.

Hellinger, Marlis 1985. Englisch-orientierte Pidgin- und Kreolsprachen. Entstehung, Geschichte und sprachlicher Wandel [English-based pidgins and creoles. Origin, history and linguistic change]. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.

Hesseling, D. C. 1979. On the origin and formation of creoles. A miscellany of articles. Ann Arbor: MI.

Ho, Mian Lian and John T.Platt 1993. Dynamics of a contact continuum. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Holloway, Joseph E. and Winifred K. Vass 1993. The African heritage of American English. Bloomington: IN.

Holm, John 1988. Pidgins and creoles.. Cambridge.

Holm, John A. 2000. An introduction to pidgins and creoles. Cambridge: University Press.

Hymes, Dell (ed.) 1971. Pidginization and creolization of languages. Cambridge: University Press.

Kephart, Ronald F. 2000. 'Broken English' The creole language of Carriacou. Frankfurt/New York: Peter Lang.

Le Page, Robert and Andrée Tabouret-Keller 1985. Acts of identity. Creole-based approaches to language and ethnicity. Cambridge: University Press.

Lefebvre, Claire 1999. Creole genesis and the acquisition of grammar. The case of Haitian Creole. Cambridge: University Press.

Lord, Carol 1993. Historical change in serial verb constructions. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

McWhorter, John (ed.) 2000. Language change and language contact in pidgins and creoles. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Meisel, Jürgen (ed.) 1979. Pidgins - Creoles - Languages in contact. Tübingen: Gunter Narr.

Morgan, Marcyliena (ed.) 1994. Language and the social construction of identity in creole situations. Los Angeles: Center for Afro-American Studies.

Mühlhäusler, Peter 1986. Pidgin and creole linguistics. Language in Society 11. Oxford.

Muysken, Pieter (ed.) 1981. Generative studies on creole languages. Dordrecht: Foris.

Muysken, Pieter and Norval Smith (eds) 1986. Substrata versus universals in creole genesis. Papers from the Amsterdam creole workshop.. Amsterdam.

Neumann-Holzschuh, Ingrid and Edgar Schneider (eds) 2001. Degrees of restructuring in creole languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Rickford, John R. 1988. Dimensions of a creole continuum. Stanford: California.

Rickford, John R. 1988. Sociolinguistics and pidgin-creole studies. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 71. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Rickford, John R. and Suzanne Romaine (eds) 1999. Creole genesis.. Amsterdam.

Romaine, Suzanne 1988. Pidgin and creole languages. London: Longman.

Romaine, Suzanne 1992. Language, education, and development. Urban and rural Tok Pisin in Papua New Guinea. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Schuchardt, Hugo 1979. The ethnography of variation. Selected writings on pidgins and creoles. Ed. and translated by Th. Markey. Ann Arbor: MI.

Schuchardt, Hugo 1980. Pidgin and creole languages. Selected essays by Hugo Schuchardt. Cambridge: University Press.

Schumann, J. 1978. The pidginization process. A model for second language acquisition. Rowley: MA.

Sebba, Mark 1997. Contact languages. Pidgins and creoles. London: Macmillan.

Seuren, Pieter and Salikoko Mufwene (eds) 1990. Issues in creole linguistics. Special Issue of Linguistics 28:4.

Singh, Ishtla 2000. Pidgins and creoles. An introduction. London: Arnold.

Singler, John V. (ed.) 1990. Pidgin and creole tense-mood-aspect systems. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Singler, John Victor and Silvia Kouwenberg (eds) 2006. The handbook of pidgin and creole studies. Oxford: Blackwell.

Smith, Norval and Tonjes Veenstra (eds) 2001. Creolization and contact. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Spears, A. K. and Donald Winford 1997. The structure and status of pidgins and creoles. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Sutcliffe, David with John Figueroa 1992. System in black language. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Tinelli, Henri 1981. Creole phonology. The Hague: Mouton.

Todd, Loreto 1984. Modern Englishes. Pidgins and creoles. Oxford: Blackwell.

Todd, Loreto 1989. Pidgins and creoles2nd edition. London: Routledge.

Tryon, Darrell T. and Jean-Michel Charpentier 2001. Pacific pidgins and creoles.. Berlin.

Ureland, P.Sture (ed.) 1982. Die Leistung der Strataforschung und der Kreolistik - Typologische Aspekte der Sprachkontakte. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

Valdman, Albert (ed.) 1977. Pidgin and creole linguistics. Bloomington: IN.

Valdman, Albert and Arnold Highfield (eds) 1980. Theoretical orientations in creole studies. New York: Academic Press.

Versteegh, Kees 1984. Pidginization and creolization. The case of Arabic. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Wekker, Herman (ed.) 1995. Creole languages and language acquisition. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Winford, Donald 1993. Predication in Caribbean English creoles. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Woolford, E. and W. Washabaugh (eds) 1980. The social context of creolization. Ann Arbor: MI.

Wurm, Stefan and Peter Mühlhäusler (eds) 1985. Handbook of Tok Pisin (New Guinea Pidgin). Canberra: Australian National University.

Wurm, Stefan, Peter Mühlhäusler and Darrell T.Tryon (eds) 1996. Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific.. Berlin.


 

English in England


Altendorf, Ulrike 2003. Estuary English. Levelling at the interface of RP and South-Eastern British English. Tübingen: Gunter Narr.

Anderson, Peter M. 1987. A structural atlas of the English dialects. London: Croom Helm.

Anderwald, Lieselotte 2002. Negation in non-standard British English. Gaps. London.

Barnes, William 1970. A glossary of the Dorset dialect with a grammar of its word shapening and wording. St.Peter Port: Guernsey.

Britain, David (ed.) 2006. Language in the British Isles. Second edition of Trudgill (ed.) 1984. Cambridge: University Press.

Brook, George Leslie 1978. English dialects. 3rd edition. London: André Deutsch.

Brook, George Leslie 1979. Varieties of English. London: Macmillan.

Cheshire, Jenny 1982. Variation in an English dialect. A sociolinguistic study. Cambridge: University Press.

Davis, L. 1983. English dialectology. Tuscaloosa: AL.

Edwards, Vivian K., Peter Trudgill and Bert Weltens 1984. The grammar of English dialect: A survey of research. London: Economic and Social Research Council.

Ellis, Stanley (ed.) 1969. Studies in honour of Harold Orton. Leeds: University Press.

Foulkes, Paul and Gerald Docherty (eds.) 1999. Urban Voices. London: Arnold.

Fischer, Andreas (ed.) 1989. The history and the dialects of English. Festschrift for Eduard Kolb. Heidelberg: Winter.

Hughes, Arthur and Peter Trudgill 1988. English accents and dialects. An introduction to social and regional varieties of British English. 2nd edition. London: Edward Arnold.

James, C.V. (ed.) 1978. The older mother tongues of the United Kingdom. London.

Kirk, John Stewart, Sanderson and John Widdowson (eds) 1985. Studies in linguistic geography. The dialects of English in Britain and Ireland. London: Croom Helm.

Kolb, Eduard, Beat Glauser, Willy Elmer and Renate Stamm 1979. Atlas of English sounds. Bern.

Kurath, Hans and Guy S. Lowman ( Jr.) 1970. The dialectal structure of Southern England: Phonological evidence. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.

Matthews, William 1972. Cockney past and present. A short history of the dialect of London. London: Routledge.

Milroy, James and Lesley Milroy (eds) 1989. Regional variation in British English syntax. Swindon: Economic and Social Research Council.

Milroy, James and Lesley Milroy (eds) 1993. Real English. The grammar of the English dialects in the British Isles. Real Language Series London: Longman.

North, David and Adam Sharpe 1980. A word-geography of Cornwall. Redruth: Cornwall.

North, David 1983. Studies in Anglo-Cornish phonology. Redruth: Cornwall.

Orton, Harold and Eugen Dieth 1962. Survey of English dialects. 4 vols. Leeds: Edward Arnold.

Orton, Harold and Nathalia Wright 1974. A word geography of England. Leeds.

Orton, Harold, Stewart Sanderson and John Widdowson 1978. The linguistic atlas of England. London: Croom Helm.

Påhlsson, Christer 1972. The Northumbrian burr. A sociolinguistic study. Lund Studies in English Vol. 41. Lund.

Parry, David 1977. The survey of Anglo-Welsh dialects. Vol. 1: The South-East. Vol. 2: The South-West. Swansea: University of Wales Press.

Ramisch, Heinrich 1989. The variation of English in Guernsey/Channel Islands. Frankfurt: Lang.

Ramsaran, Susan (ed.) 1989. Studies in the pronunciation of English. A commemorative volume in honour of A. C. Gimson. London: Routledge.

Rogers, Norman 1979. Wessex dialect. Bradford-on-Avon.

Sebba, Mark 1993. London Jamaican. Language systems in interaction. Real Language Series London: Longman.

Sharpe, Adam and Charles Thomas 1979. Cornish dialect - A progress report. Redruth: Institute of Cornish Studies.

Shopen, Timothy and J. M. Williams (eds) 1980. Standards and dialects in English. Cambridge: MA.

Skeat, Walter 1968. English dialects from the eighth century to the present day. New York: Kraus Reprint Co..

Sutcliffe, David 1982. British Black English. Oxford: Blackwell.

Sutcliffe, David and A. Wong (eds) 1986. The language of the Black experience. Oxford: Blackwell.

Trudgill, Peter (ed.) 1984. Language in the British Isles. Cambridge: University Press.

Trudgill, Peter 1990. The dialects of England. Oxford: Blackwell.

Trudgill, Peter J. K. Chambers (eds) 1991. Dialects of English. Studies in grammatical variation. London: Longman.

Hughes, Arthur, Peter Trudgill and Dominic Watts 2005. English accents and dialects. An introduction to social and regional varieties of British English. Fourth edition. London: Hodder Arnold.

Upton, Clive, Stewart Sanderson and John Widdowson 1987. Word maps. A dialect atlas of England. London: Croom Helm.

Upton, Clive, John Widdowson and David Parry 1993. Survey of English dialects. The dictionary and grammar. London: Routledge.

Viereck, Wolfgang (ed) 1985. Focus on England and Wales. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Viereck, Wolfgang and Heinrich Ramisch 1991. The computer developed Linguistic Atlas of England. 2 vols. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

Wagner, Heinrich 1959. Das Verbum in den Sprachen der britischen Inseln [The verb in the languages of the British Isles]. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

Wakelin, Martyn (ed.) 1972. Patterns in the folk speech of the British Isles. London: Athlone Press.

Wakelin, Martyn 1977. English dialects. An introduction. 2nd edition. London: Athlone Press.

Wakelin, Martyn 1978. Discovering English dialects. Aylesbury: Bucks..

Wakelin, Martyn 1986. The southwest of England. Varieties of English around the World Text Series. Vol. 5. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Wales, Katie 2006. Northern English. A social and cultural history. Cambridge: University Press.

Wells, John 1973. Jamaican pronunciation in London. Oxford: Blackwell.

Wells, John 1982. Accents of English. 3 vols. Cambridge: University Press.

Widén, Bertil 1968. Studies on the Dorset dialect. Nendeln: Liechtenstein.

Wright, Elizabeth M. 1968. Rustic speech and folklore. Detroit.

Wright, Joseph 1905. English dialect grammar. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Wright, Peter 1981. Cockney dialect and slang. London: Batsford.


 

Scots and Scottish English


Aitken, Adam J., Agnus McIntosh and H. Palson (eds) 1971. Edinburgh Studies in English and Scots. London: Longman.

Aitken, Adam J., M. P. McDiarmid and D. S. Thomson (eds) 1977. Bards and makars. Glasgow: University Press.

Aitken, Adam J. and Tom McArthur (eds.) 1979. Languages of Scotland. Edinburgh: Chambers.

Barrow, G. W. S. ed. 1974. The Scottish Tradition. Essays in Honour of Ronald Gordon Cant. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press.

Benskin, Michael and Michael L. Samuels (eds) 1981. So meny people longages and tonges. Philological essays in Scots and mediæval English presented to Angus McIntosh. Edinburgh: The Editors.

Devitt, Amy J. 1989. Standardizing written English. Diffusion in the case of Scotland 1520-1659. Cambridge: University Press.

Dickinson, W. C. and A. A. M. Duncan 1977. Scotland from earliest times to 1603. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Dieth, Eugen 1932. A grammar of the Buchan dialect. Phonology - accidence. Cambridge: Heffer.

Glauser, Beat 1970. The Scottish-English linguistic border. Lexical aspects. Bern: Francke.

Görlach, Manfred (ed.) 1985. Focus on: Scotland. Varieties of English around the World Vol. 5. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Görlach, Manfred 2002. A textual history of Scots. Heidelberg: Winter.

Graham, J. J. 1979. The Shetland dictionary. Stornoway: Thule Press.

Graham, W. 1980. The Scots word book. Edinburgh: The Ramsay Head Press.

Grant, William and David D. Murison (eds) 1929. The Scottish National Dictionary. 10 vols. Edinburgh: The Scottish National Dictionary Association.

Grant, William and David D. Murison (eds) 1986. The compact Scottish National Dictionary. 2 vols. Aberdeen: University Press.

Häcker, Martina 1998. Syntax and semantics of adverbial clauses in present-day Scots. A corpus-based study. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Häcker, Martina 1999. Adverbial clauses in Scots. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Haugen, Einar, J. Derrick McClure and D. S. Thomson (eds) 1981. Minority languages today. Edinburgh: University Press.

Jamaieson, J. 1841. Etymological dictionary of the Scottish language. Edinbrugh: W. Tait.

Jones, Charles (ed.) 1997. The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language. Edinburgh: University Press.

Kay, Billy 1986. Scots the mither tongue. Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing Company.

Lamb, G. 1988. Orkney wordbook. Birsay: Byrgisey.

Leyburn, James G. 1962. The Scotch-Irish. A social history. Chapel Hill: NC.

Macafee, Caroline 1983. Glasgow. Varieties of English Around the World. Text Series Vol. 3. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Macafee, Caroline I. 1994. Traditional dialect in the modern world. Some studies in the Glasgow vernacular. Frankfurt/M.: Lang.

Macaulay, Ronald K. 1977. Language.. Edinburgh.

Macaulay, Ronald K. 1991. Locating dialect in discourse. The language of honest men and bonnie lassies in Ayr. Oxford: University Press.

Macaulay, Ronald K. 1997. Standards and variation in urban speech. Examples from Lowland Scots. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Mackinnon, Iain 1966. Lowland Scots glossary. Stirling: Learmonth.

Macleod, Iseabail (ed.) 1990. The Scots thesaurus. Aberdeen: University Press.

Macleod, Iseabail and Pauline Cairns 1993. The concise English-Scots dictionary. Edinburgh: Chambers.

Marwick, Hugh 1929. The Orkney Norn. Oxford: University Press.

Mather, J. Y. and Hans H. Speitel 1986. The Linguistic Atlas of Scotland. 3 vols. London: Croom Helm.

McClure, J. Derrick 1983. Scotland and the Lowland Tongue. Studies in the language and literature of Lowland Scotland in honour of David Murison. Aberdeen: University Press.

McClure, J. Derrick 1995. Scots and its literature. Varieties of English Around the World G14. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

McClure, J. Derrick 2001. Doric. The dialect of North-East Scotland. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

McColl Millar, Robert 2007. Northern and Insular Scots. Edinburgh: University Press.

McIntosh, Angus 1952. An introduction to a survey of Scottish dialects. Edinburgh.

Murison, David 1977. The guid Scots tongue. Edinburgh: Blackwood.

Murray, James A. H. 1873. The dialect of the southern counties of Scotland. Its pronunciation.. London.

Nicolaisen, W. F. H. 1976. Scottish place-names. London: Batsford.

Robertson, T. A. and John J. Graham 1991. Grammar and usage of the Shetland dialect. Lerwick: Shetland Times.

Robinson, Mairi (ed.) 1985. The concise Scots Dictionary. Aberdeen: University Press.

Sabban, Annette 1982. Gälisch-Englischer Sprachkontakt. Heidelberg: Groos.

Sandred, Karl-Inge 1983. Good or bad Scots? Attitudes to optional lexical and grammatical usages in Edinburgh. Uppsala: Almqvist and Wiksell.

Stevenson, James A. C. and Iseabail Macleod 1989. Scoor-oot: A dictionary of Scots words and phrases in current use. London: Athlone Press.

Strauss, D. and H. W. Drescher (eds) 1989. Scottish language and literature. Mediaeval and renaissance. Frankfurt: Lang.

Thomson, D. ed. 1983. The Companion to Gaelic Scotland. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Tulloch, Graham 1980. The language of Walter Scott. A study of his Scottish and period language. London: André Deutsch.

Tulloch, Graham 1988. Scots. An introduction. Adelaide: Flinders University.

Wilson, J. 1926. The dialects of central Scotland. Oxford: University Press.

Withers, C. W. J. 1984. Gaelic in Scotland 1698-1981. Edinburgh: John Donald.


 

Welsh English


Coupland, Nikolas 1988. Dialect in use. Sociolinguistic variation in Cardiff English. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.

Edwards, J. 1985. Talk tidy: The art of speaking Wenglish. Cowbridge: Brown and Sons.

Edwards, J. 1986. More talk tidy. Cowbridge: Brown and Sons.

Penhallurick, Robert 1994. Gowerland and its language. Bamberg Studies 36 Frankfurt/M.: Lang.

Penhallurick, Robert 1991. The Anglo-Welsh Dialects of North Wales. Bamberger Beiträge zur englischen Sprachwissenschaft Frankfurt/Bern: Lang.


 

Irish English


Adams, George Brendan (ed.) 1964. Ulster dialects. An introductory symposium. Holywood: Co. Down.

Amador-Moreno, Carolina 2010. An Introduction to Irish English. London: Continuum Books.

Barron, Anne and Klaus Schneider (eds) 2005. The pragmatics of Irish English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Barry, Michael V. (ed.) 1981. Aspects of English dialects in Ireland. Belfast: The Institute of Irish Studies.

Bliss, Alan J. 1979. Spoken English in Ireland 1600-1740. Twenty-seven representative texts assembled and analysed. Dublin: Cadenus Press.

Bramsbäck, Birgit and Martin Croghan (eds) 1988. Anglo-Irish and Irish literature. Aspects of language and culture. 2 vols. Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell.

Carney, James 1955. Studies in Irish literature and history. Dublin: Institute for Advanced Studies.

Corrigan, Karen 2009. Northern Irish English. Edinburgh: University Press.

Crowley, Tony 2000. The politics of language in Ireland. London.

Dolan, Terence P. (ed.) 1990. The English of the Irish. Irish University Review 20:1. Dublin.

Dudley Edwards, Ruth 1981. An atlas of Irish history. 2nd edition. London: Methuen.

Filppula, Markku 1999. The Grammar of Irish English. Language in Hibernian style. London: Routledge.

Harris, John, David Little and David Singleton (eds) 1986. Perspectives on the English language in Ireland. Proceedings of the first symposium on Hiberno-English.. Dublin.

Henry, Alison 1995. Belfast English and Standard English. Dialect variation and parameter setting. Oxford: University Press.

Henry, Patrick Leo 1957. An Anglo-Irish dialect of North Roscommon.. Zürich: Aschmann and Scheller.

Herity, Michael and George Eogan 1977. Ireland in prehistory. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Heuser, Wilhelm 1904. Die Kildare-Gedichte. Die ältesten mittelenglischen Denkmäler in anglo-irischer Überlieferung [The Kildare Poems. The oldest Middle English documents in the Anglo-Irish tradition]. Bonner Beiträge zur Anglistik Vol. 14. Bonn: Hanstein.

Hickey, Raymond 2002. A source book for Irish English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Hickey, Raymond 2004. A sound atlas of Irish English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Hickey, Raymond 2005. Dublin English. Evolution and change. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Hickey, Raymond 2007. Irish English. History and present-day forms. Cambridge: University Press.

Hindley, Reg 1990. The death of the Irish language. A qualified obituary. London: Routledge.

Hogan, James Jeremiah 1927. The English language in Ireland. Dublin: Educational Company of Ireland.

Hogan, James Jeremiah 1934. An outline of English philology. Dublin: Educational Company of Ireland.

Jones, S. 1798. Sheridan improved: A general pronouncing and explanatory dictionary of the English language. 3rd edition. London: Vernor and Hood.

Joyce, Patrick Weston 1910. English as we speak it in Ireland. London: Longmans.

Kallen, Jeffrey 1997. Focus on Ireland. Varieties of English around the World Vol. 21. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Kirk, John M. and Dónall Ó Baoill (eds) 2001. Language Links: the Languages of Scotland and Ireland. Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics, 2. Belfast: Queen´s University.

Kirk, John M. and Dónall Ó Baoill (eds) 2002. Travellers and their Language. Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics, 4. Belfast: Queen’s University.

Kosok, Heinz 1990. Geschichte der anglo-irischen Literatur. Berlin: Erich Schmidt.

Lydon, James (ed.) 1984. The English in medieval Ireland. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy.

McCafferty, Kevin 2000. Ethnicity and language change. English in (London)Derry. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Miller, Kerby and Paul Wagner 1994. Out of Ireland. The story of Irish emigration to America. London: Aurum Press.

Moody, Theodore W. and Francis X.Martin (eds) 1994. The course of Irish history. Cork: Mercier.

O’Cuív, Brian (ed.) 1969. A view of the Irish language. Dublin: Stationary Office.

O’Muirithe, Diarmuid (ed.) 1977. The English language in Ireland. Cork: Mercier.

O’Muirithe, Diarmuid (ed.) 1977. The English language in Ireland. Cork: Mercier.

Share, Bernard 2003 [1997]. Slanguage – a Dictionary of Slang and Colloquial English in Ireland. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan.

Smyth, W. J. and K. Wheelan (eds) 1988. Common ground: Essays on the historical geography of Ireland. Cork: University Press.

Stenson, Nancy 1981. Studies in Irish syntax. T?bingen: Narr.

Taniguchi, Jiro 1972. A grammatical analysis of artistic representation of Irish English. Revised and enlarged edition. Tokyo.

Traynor, Michael 1953. The English dialect of Donegal. A glossary. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy.

Tristram, Hildegard (ed.) 1997. The Celtic Englishes. Heidelberg: Carl Winter.

Tristram, Hildegard (ed.) 2000. The Celtic Englishes II. Heidelberg: Carl Winter.

Tristram, Hildegard (ed.) 2003. The Celtic Englishes III. Heidelberg: Carl Winter.

Tristram, Hildegard (ed.) 2006. The Celtic Englishes IV. Potsdam: University Press.

Zettersten, Arne 1967. The virtues of herbs in the Loscombe manuscript. A contribution to Anglo-Irish language and literature. Lund: Gleerup.

Zwickl, Simone 2002. Language Attitudes, Ethnic Identity and Dialect Use across the Northern Ireland Border: Armagh and Monaghan. Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics, 5. Belfast: Queen’s University Press.


 

United States English


Algeo, John 2001. English in North America. Cambridge History of the English Language, Vol. 6. Cambridge: University Press.

Allen, Harold and Gary Underwood (eds) 1971. Readings in American dialectology. New York: Appleton Century.

Bailyn, Bernard 1987. Voyagers to the west. A passage in the peopling of America on the eve of the revolution. London: Tauris.

Brock, W. R. 1982. Scotus Americanus. A survey of the sources for links between Scotland and America in the eighteenth century. Edinburgh: University Press.

Carr, Elizabeth 1972. Da Kine Talk. From pidgin to standard English in Hawaii. Honolulu: Hawaii University Press.

Carver, Craig M. 1987. American regional dialects. A word geography. Ann Arbor: MI.

Cassidy, Frederic G. (ed.) 1985. Dictionary of American Regional English. Cambridge.

Christian, Donna, Walt Wolfram and Nanjo Dube 1988. Variation and change in geographically isolated communities Appalachian English and Ozark English. Tuscaloosa: AL.

Coleman, Terry 1972. Passage to America. A history of emigrants from Great Britain and Ireland to America in the mid-nineteenth century. London: Hutchinson.

Coleman, Terry 1987. Going to America. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co.

Conklin, Nancy Faires and Margaret A. Lourie 1983. A host of tongues. Language communities in the United States. New York.

Craigie, William A. 1940. The growth of American English. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Dillard, Joey Lee 1972. Black English. Its history and usage in the United States. New York: Random House.

Dillard, Joey Lee 1975. All-American English. New York: Random House.

Dillard, Joey Lee (ed.) 1985. Toward a social history of American English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Dillard, Joey Lee 1992. A history of American English. London: Longman.

Ferguson, Charles A. and Shirley B. Heath (eds) 1981. Language in the USA. Cambridge: University Press.

Finegan, Edward and John R. Rickford (eds) 2004. Language in the USA. Themes for the twenty-first century. Cambridge: University Press.

Fishman, Joshua 1966. Language loyalty in the United States. The maintenance and perpetuation of non-English mother tongues by American ethnic and religious groups. The Hague: Mouton.

Flexner, Stuart B. 1976. I hear America talking. New York.

Francis, W. Nelson (ed.) 1958. The structure of American English. New York: The Ronald Press Company.

Frazer, Timothy C. (ed.) 1993. 'Heartland' English. Tuscaloosa.

Fries, Charles C. 1940. American English grammar. New York: Appleton Century.

Glowka, Wayne A. and Donald M. Lance (eds) 1993. Language variation in American English. Research and teaching. New York: The Modern Language Association of America.

Goodman, Paul (ed.) 1967. Essays on American colonial history. New York: Holt.

Haugen, Einar 1969. The Norwegian language in America. A study in bilingual behavior. Bloomington: Indiana.

Hendrickson, Robert 1987. American talk. The words and ways of American dialect. New York: Penguin.

Ihde, T. W. (ed.) 1994. The Irish language in the United States. Westport: Conn.

Johnson, Ellen 1996. Lexical change and variation in the Southeastern United States. Tuscaloosa: AL.

Johnson, Stanley Currie 1913. A history of emigration from the United Kingdom to North America. New York.

Jones, Maldwyn Allen 1960. American immigration. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Kamensky, Jane 1997. Governing the tongue. The politics of speech in Early New England. Oxford: University Press.

Kerr, Elizabeth M. and Ralph M. Aderman (eds) 1963. Aspects of American English. New York.

Kolb, Eduard 1966. Phonological atlas of the northern region. The six northern counties. Bern.

Krapp, George Philip 1925. The English language in America. 2 vols. New York.

Kretzschmar, William A. and Edgar Schneider 1996. Introduction to quantative analysis of linguistic survey data. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Kurath, Hans et al. 1943. Linguistic atlas of New England. Providence: RI.

Kurath, Hans and Raven I. McDavid 1961. The pronunciation of English in the Atlantic States. Ann Arbor: MI.

Kytö, Merja 1991. Variation and diachrony with Early American English in focus. Bamberger Beiträge zur Englischen Sprachwissenschaft Frankfurt/Bern: Lang.

Labov, William, Sharon Ash and Charles Boberg 2005. Atlas of North American English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Leap, William L. 1993. American Indian English. Salt Lake City, UT.

Lighter, Jonathan E. 1994. Historical dictionary of American slang. New York.

Littlefield, Daniel C. 1981. Rice and slaves: Ethnicity and the slave trade in colonial South Carolina. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.

Lutz, William D. 1994. The Cambridge thesaurus of American English. Cambridge: University Press.

Marckwardt, Albert H. 1980 [1958]. American English. 2nd ed. revised by J. L. Dillard. New York.

McKnight, George H. 1969. English words and their background. New York: Gordian Press.

Mencken, Henry L. 1963. The American language. An inquiry into the development of English in the United States. New York.

Mills, Carl 1990. American grammar. Sound, form and meaning. New York: Lang.

Montgomery, Michael and Guy Bailey (eds) 1986. Language variety in the south. Perspectives in Black and White. Tuscaloosa: AL.

Montgomery, Michael (ed.) 1994. The crucible of Carolina. Essays in the development of Gullah language and culture. Athens: GA.

Nagle, Stephen and Sara L. Sanders (eds) 2003. English in the Southern United States. Cambridge: University Press.

Ofelia, Garcìa and Joshua A. Fishman (eds) 1997. The multilingual apple. Languages in New York city. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Oomen, Ursula 1982. Die englische Sprache in den USA. Variation und Struktur [The English language in the USA. Variation and structure]. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

Orion, Gertrude F. 2000. Pronouncing American English. Sounds. In 2nd edition Boston.

Pederson, Lee et al. (eds) 1986. The Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States. A concordance of basic materials. Ann Arbor: MI.

Poplack, Shana (ed.) 2000. The English history of African American Vernacular English. Oxford: Blackwell.

Preston, Dennis R. 1991. American dialect research. Celebrating the 100th anniversary of the American Dialect Society. 1889-1989. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Preston, Dennis R. (ed.) 1993. American dialect research. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Pyles, Thomas 1952. Words and ways of American English. New York.

Reagan, Charles and William Ferris (eds) 1989. Encyclopedia of Southern Culture. Chapel Hill/London: University of North Carolina Press.

Reed, Carroll E. 1977. Dialects of American English. 2nd edition. Amherst: MA.

Rickford, John 1999. African American Vernacular English. Oxford: Blackwell.

Rideout, Philip M. (ed.) 2000. The Newbury House dictionary of American English. Boston: Heinle.

Roca, Ana and John M. Lipski (eds) 1993. Spanish in the United States. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Schneider, Edgar W. (ed.) 1996. Focus on the USA. Varieties of English Around the World Vol. 16. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Schrier, Arnold 1958. Ireland and the American emigration. Minneapolis.

Shores, David L. Carole P. Hines (eds.) 1977. Papers in language variation. Tuscaloosa, AL.

Shuy, Roger 1967. Discovering American dialects. Champaign: IL.

Tabbert, Russell 1991. Dictionary of Alaskan English. Juneau: Alaska.

Taylor, Alan 2001. American colonies. The settlement of north America. London: Allen Lane.

Tottie, Gunnel 2002. An introduction to American English. Oxford: Blackwell.

Veltman, Calvin 1983. Language shift in the United States. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Ward, David 1971. Cities and immigrants. A geography of change in nineteenth-century America. New York: Oxford University Press.

Wentworth, H. and Stuart B. Flexner 1975. Dictionary of American slang. New York: Crowell.

Werisch, Rüdiger (ed.) 1996. USA-Lexikon. Berlin: Erich Schmidt.

Williamson, Juanita V. and Virginia M. Burke (eds) 1971. A various language. Perspectives on American dialects. New York.

Wilson, Kenneth G. 1993. The Columbia guide to standard American English. New York: Columbia University Press.

Wokeck, Marianne Sophia 1999. Trade in strangers. The beginnings of mass migration to North America. University Park, PN.

Wolfram, Walt and Ralph W. Fasold 1974. The study of social dialects in American English. Englewood Cliffs: NJ.

Wolfram, Walt and Donna Christian 1976. Appalachian speech. Arlington: VA.

Wolfram, Walt and Natalie Schilling-Estes 1997. Hoi Toide on the Outer Banks. The story of the Ocracoke Brogue. Chapel Hill: NC.

Wolfram, Walt and Natalie Schilling-Estes 1998. American English. Dialects and variation. Oxford: Blackwell.

Wolfram, Walt and Ben Ward 2005. American voices. How dialects differ from coast to coast. Oxford: Blackwell.

Young, Linda W. L. 1994. Crosstalk and culture in Sino-American communication. Cambridge: University Press.


 

Canadian English


Avis, Walter S. et al. (eds) 1967. A dictionary of Canadianisms on historical principles. Toronto: Gage.

Bähr, Dieter 1981. Die englische Sprache in Kanada. Eine Analyse des `Survey of Canadian English'. Tübingen: Gunter Narr.

Boberg, Charles 2010. The English Language in Canada. Status, History and Comparative Analysis. Cambridge: University Press.

Chambers, Jack (ed.) 1973. Canadian English. Origins and structures. Toronto: Methuen.

Clarke, Sandra (ed.) 1993. Focus on Canada. Varieties of English around the World Vol.11. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Dollinger, Stefan 2008. New-Dialect Formation in Canada. Evidence from the English modal auxiliaries. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Edwards, John (ed.) 1998. Language in Canada. Cambridge: University Press.

Harris, R. Cole (ed.) 1987. Historical atlas of Canada. Vol. 1: From the beginning to 1800. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Kerr, Donald and Deryck W. Holdsworth (eds) 1990. Historical atlas of Canada. Vol. 3: Addressing the twentieth century. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Leon, P. R. and P. Martin (eds) 1979. Toronto English. Montreal: Didier.

Lieberson, S. 1979. Language and ethnic relations in Canada. New York: John Wiley.

McConnell, R. E. 1979. Our own voice. Canadian English and how it is studied. Toronto: Gage.

Orkin, Mark M. (ed.) 1971. Speaking Canadian English. An informal account of the English language in Canada. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Paddock, Harold (ed.) 1982. Languages in Newfoundland and Labrador. 2nd edition. St.John's: Memorial University of Newfoundland.

Scargill, M. H. 1977. A short history of Canadian English. Victoria: British Columbia.

Story, George M., William J. Kirwin and John D. Widdowson (eds.) 1990. Dictionary of Newfoundland English. 2nd edition with supplement. Toronto.

Winks, Robin W. 1971. The Blacks in Canada. A history. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press.

Woods, Howard B. 1986. The Ottawa survey of Canadian English. Montreal: Didier.


 

African American English


Abrahams, Roger D. 1978. Talking Black. Rowley: MA.

Alleyne, Mervyn C. 1980. Comparative Afro-American. An historical-comparative study of English-based Afro-American dialects of the new world. Linguistica Extranea Studia 11. Ann Arbor.

Bailey, Guy, Natalie Maynor and Patricia Cukor-Avila (eds) 1996. The emergence of Black English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Baugh, John 1983. Black street speech. Its history.. Austin.

Baugh, John 2000. Beyond ebonics. Linguistic pride and racial prejudice. Oxford: University Press.

Burling, Robbins 1973. English in black and white. New York: Holt.

Butters, Ronald R. 1989. The death of Black English. Frankfurt: Lang.

Dillard, Joey Lee 1972. Black English. Its history and usage in the United States. New York: Random House.

Edwards, Vivian K. 1986. Language in a black community. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Ewers, Traute 1996. The origin of American Black English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Fasold, Ralph 1991. Tense marking in Black English. A linguistic and social analysis. Arlington: VA.

Goodwin, Marjorie H. 1990. He-said-she-said . Talk as social organisation among black children. Bloomington: IN.

Green, Lisa J. 2002. African American English.. Cambridge.

Hall, W. and R. Freedle 1975. Culture and language. The Black American experience. New York: John Wiley.

Harrison, Deborah Sears and Tom Trabasso (eds) 1976. Black English: A seminar. Hillsdale: New Jersey.

Hewitt, R. 1986. White talk black talk. Cambridge: University Press.

Holloway, Joseph E. and Winifred K. Vass 1993. The African heritage of American English. Bloomington: IN.

Kautzsch, Alexander 2002. The historical evolution of earlier African American English. An empirical comparison of early sources. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Kochman, Thomas (ed.) 1972. Rappin' and stylin' out. Communication in urban black American. Urbana: IL.

Lanehart, Sonja L. (ed) 2001. Socio-cultural and historical contexts of African American English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Lipski, J. (ed.) 0. African American English and its congenors. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Loman, B. 1967. Conversations in a Negro American dialect. Washington: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Luelsdorff, Philip 1975. A segmental phonology of Black English. The Hague: Mouton.

Morgan, Marcyliena 2002. Language.. Cambridge.

Mufwene, Salikoko 2001. The ecology of language evolution. Cambridge: University Press.

Mufwene, Salikoko (ed.) 1993. Africanisms in Afro-American language varieties. Athens/London: University of Georgia Press.

Mufwene, Salikoko, Guy Bailey, John R. Rickford and John Baugh (eds) 1998. African American Vernacular English. An overview. London: Routledge.

Poplack, Shana (ed.) 2000. The English history of African American Vernacular English. Oxford: Blackwell.

Poplack, Shana and Sali Tagliamonte 2001. African American English in the Diaspora. Oxford: Blackwell.

Rickford, John and Lisa Green 1998. African American Vernacular English. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Rickford, John 1999. African American Vernacular English. Features, evolution, educational implications. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Schneider, Edgar W. 1989. American earlier Black English. Morphological and syntactic variables. Tuscaloosa: AL.

Turner, Lorenzo 1969. Africanisms in the Gullah dialect. New York: Arno Press.

Walker, James W 1976. The Black Loyalists. The search for a promised land in Nova Scotia and Sierra Leone 1783-1870. London: Longman.

Wolfram, Walt and Erik R. Thomas 2002. The development of African American English. Oxford: Blackwell.


 

Caribbean English


Akers, G. 1981. Phonological variation in the Jamaican continuum. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Bailey, Beryl Loftman 1966. Jamaican creole syntax. Cambridge: University Press.

Baugh, John 1983. Black street speech: Its history.. Austin.

Carrington, Lawrence D. 1981. St.Lucian creole. A descriptive analysis of its phonology and morpho-syntax. Hamburg: Buske.

Carrington, Lawrence D. et al. (eds) 1983. Studies in Caribbean language. St.Augustine: Trinidad.

Cassidy, Frederic G. 1971. Jamaican talk. Three hundred years of the English language in Jamaica. London: Macmillan.

Cassidy, Frederick G. and Robert B. Le Page 1967. Dictionary of Jamaican English. Cambridge: University Press.

Dalphinis, M. 1985. Caribbean and African languages. Social history, literature and education. London: Karia Press.

Day, Richard (ed.) 1980. Issues in English creoles. Heidelberg: Julius Groos.

Dillard, Joey Lee 1975. All-American English. New York: Random House.

Dillard, Joey Lee (ed.) 1976. Socio-historical factors in the formation of creoles. The Hague: Mouton.

Gilbert, Glenn G. (ed.) 1987. Pidgin and creole languages. Essays in memory of John E. Reinecke. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Görlach, Manfred and John Holm (eds) 1986. Focus on the Caribbean. Varieties of English around the World Vol. 8. Heidelberg: Julius Groos.

Grimes, J. E. 1972. Languages of the Guyanas. Summer Institute of Linguistics: University of Oklahoma.

Hancock, Ian (ed.) 1986. Diversity and development in English-related creoles. Ann Arbor: MI.

Highfield, Arnold and Albert Valdman (eds) 1981. Historicity and variation in creole studies. Ann Arbor: MI.

Holm, John (ed.) 1983. Central American English. Varieties of English around the World Text Series. Vol. 2. Heidelberg: Julius Groos.

Lalla, B. J. D’Costa 1990. Language in exile. Three hundred years of Jamaican creole. Tuscaloosa: AL.

Le Page, Robert and David DeCamp (eds) 1960. Jamaican creole. London: Macmillan.

Le Page, Robert (ed.) 1961. Proceedings of the conference on creole language studies. London: Macmillan.

Niles, Norma 1980. Provincial dialects and Barbadian English. PhD thesis. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.

Parry, J. and H. P. Sherlock 1974. A short history of the West Indies. London: Macmillan.

Patrick, Peter 1999. Urban Jamaican creole. Variation in the mesolect. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Roberts, Peter A. 1988. West Indians and their language. Cambridge: University Press.

Sebba, Mark 1987. The syntax of serial verbs. An investigation into serialization in Sranan and other languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Taylor, D. 1977. Languages of the West Indies. Baltimore.

Valdman, Albert 1970. Basic course in Haitian creole. Bloomington: IN.

Winer, Lise 1993. Trinidad and Tobago. Varieties of English Around the World Text Series. 6. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Aceto, Michael and Jeffrey P. Williams 2003. Contact Englishes of the Eastern Caribbean. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Mühlhäusler, Peter Thomas E. Dunton and Suzanne Romaine 2003. Tok Pisin texts. From the beginning to the present. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.


 

West African English


Bamgbose, A. 1973. Language and society in Nigeria. Stanford: CA.

Bamgbose, Ayo, Ayo Banjo and Thomas Andrew (eds) 1995. New Englishes. A West-African perspective. Ibadan: Mosuro/The British Council.

Berry, J. and Joseph Greenberg (eds) 1977. Linguistics in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Hague: Mouton.

Bobda, Augustin Simo 1994. Aspects of Cameroon English phonology. Frankfurt/Bern: Lang.

Breitborde, Lawrence B. 1998. Speaking and social identity. English in the lives of urban Africans. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Dihoff, Ivan 1984. Current approaches to African linguistics. Dordrecht: Foris.

Fyle, C. N. and E. D. Jones 1980. A Krio-English dictionary. Oxford: University Press.

Huber, Magnus 1999. Ghanaian Pidgin English in its West African Context. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Greenberg, Joseph 1966. The languages of Africa. The Hague: Mouton.

Lucko, Peter Lothar Peter and Hans-Georg Wolf (eds) 2003. Studies in African varieties of English. Frankfurt: Lang.

Schmied, Josef 1991. English in Africa. An introduction. London: Longman.

Schneider, Gilbert Donald 1996. West African Pidgin English. A descriptive and linguistic analysis with texts and glossary from the Cameroon area. Athens, OH.

Sey, K. A. 1973. Ghanaian English. An explanatory survey. London: Macmillan.

Singler, John V. 1981. An introduction to Liberian English. East Lansing: MI.

Spencer, John (ed.) 1971. The English language in West Africa. London: Longman.

Todd, Loreto 1981. Cameroon. Varieties of English around the World. Heidelberg: Julius Groos.

Ubahakwe, E. (ed.) 1979. Varieties and functions of English in Nigeria. Ibadan: African Universities Press.

Welmers, William E. 1973. African language structures. Berkeley/Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Westermann, D. and M. A. Bryan 1952. The languages of West Africa. Oxford: University Press.


 

South African English


Beeton, D. R. and Helen Dorner 1975. A dictionary of usage in Southern Africa. Cape Town: Oxford University Press.

De Klerk, Vivian 1996. Focus on South Africa. Varieties of English Around the World Vol. 15. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

De Klerk, Vivian 2006. Corpus linguistics and world Englishes. An analysis of Xhosa English. Continuum Books.

Hopwood, D. 1970. South African English pronunciation. Maryland: McGrath Publishing Company.

Lanham, Len W. 1967. The pronunciation of South African English: A phonetic-phonemic introduction. Capetown/Amsterdam: Balkema.

Lanham, Len W. and Christine A. MacDonald 1979. The standard in South African English and its social history. Varieties of English around the World Vol.1. Heidelberg: Julius Groos

Maylam, P. 1986. A history of the African peoples of South Africa. London/Cape Town: Croom Helm/David Philip.

Mesthrie, Rajend (ed.) 2002. Language in South Africa. Cambridge: University Press.

Platt, John, Heidi Weber and M.L.Ho 1984. The new Englishes. London: Routledge.

Raidt, Edith H. 1983. Einführung in die Geschichte und Struktur des Afrikaans. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.

Villers, A. de (ed.) 1976. English-speaking South Africa today. Cape Town: Oxford University Press.


 

East African English


Schmied, Josef 1985. Englisch in Tanzania. Sozio- und interlinguistische Probleme. Heidelberg: Groos.

Whiteley, W. H. 1969. Swahili. The rise of a national language. London: Methuen.

Whiteley, W. H. (ed.) 1974. Language in Kenya. Oxford: University Press.


 

South Asian English


Baumgardner, Robert J. (ed.) 1993. The English language in Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press.

Baumgardner, Robert J. (ed.) 1996. South Asian English. Structure, use and users . Urbana / Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

Dasgupta, Probal 1993. The otherness of English. India’s auntie tongue syndrome. London: Sage.

Kachru, Braj 1983. The Indianization of English. The English language in India. Delhi/Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kachru, Braj 1990 [1986]. The alchemy of English. The spread, functions, and models of non-native Englishes. Chicago: University of Illinois Press

Kachru, Braj, Yamuna Kachru and S. N. Sridhar (eds) 2007. Language in South Asia. Cambridge: University Press.

Krishnaswamy, N. and Archana S. Burde 1998. The politics of Indiansn English. Linguistic colonialism and the expanding English empire. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Mehrotra, Raja Ram 1998. Indian English. Text and interpretationAmsterdam: John Benjamins.

Parakrama, Arjuna 1995. De-hegemonizing language standards. Learning from (post)colonial Englishes about 'English'. London: Macmillan.

Pingali, Sailaja 2009. Indian English. Edinburgh: University Press.

Spitzbardt, H. 1976. English in India. Halle: Niemeyer.


 

South-East Asian English


Afendras, Evangelos A. Eddie C.Y.Kuo (eds) 1980. Language and society in Singapore. Singapore: University Press.

Bauer, A. 1974. Das melanische und chinesische Pidginenglish. Regensburg: Carl.

Bautista, Lourdes S. 2000. Defining standard Philippine English. Its status and grammatical features. Manila: De La Salle University Press.

Bolton, Kingsley 2003. Chinese Englishes. A sociolinguistic history. Cambridge: University Press.

Brown, Adam 1992. Making sense of Singapore English. Singapore: Federal Publications.

Crewe, W. (ed.) 1977. The English language in Singapore. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press.

Deterding, David 2007. Singapore English. Edinburgh: University Press.

Ferguson, Charles and John J. Gumperz (eds) 1960. Linguistic diversities in South Asia. Studies in regional.. Bloomington.

Foley, Joseph (ed.) 1988. New Englishes. The case of Singapore. Singapore: University of Singapore Press.

Gopinathan, S. et al. (eds) 1994. Language.. Singapore.

Gupta, Anthea Fraser 1994. The step-tongue. Children’s English in Singapore. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Hall, Robert A. 1943. Melanesian pidgin English. Grammar, texts, vocabulary. Baltimore, MD: Linguistic Society of America.

Kandiah, Thiru and John Kwan-Terry (eds) 1994. English and language planning. A Southeast Asian contribution. Signapore: Times Academic Press.

Mühlhäusler, Peter 1979. Growth and structure of the lexicon in of New Guinea pidgin. Canberra: Australian University Press.

Ooi, Vincent (ed.) 2001. Evolving Identities. The English Language in Singapore and Malaysia. Singapore: Times Academic Press.

Pakir, Anne (ed.) 1993. The English language in Singapore: Standards and norms. Singapore: University Press.

Platt, John and Heidi Weber 1980. English in Singapore and Malaysia. Status - features - functions. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.

Platt, John and Heidi Weber; Mian Lian Ho 1983. Singapore and Malaysia. Varieties of English Around the World Text Series. Vol. 4. Heidelberg: Julius Groos.

Platt, John et al. 1984. The new Englishes. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Siegel, Jeffrey 1987. Language contact in a plantation environment. A sociolinguistic history of Fiji. Cambridge: University Press.

Tay, Mary W.J. 1993. The English language in Singapore: Issues and development. Singapore: University Press.

Thompson, Roger M. 2003. Filipino English and Taglish. Language switching from multiple perspectives. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Tongue, R. K. 1974. The English of Singapore and Malaysia. Singapore: Eastern Universties Press.

Whinnom, K. 1956. Spanish contact vernaculars in the Philippine Islands. Oxford: University Press.

Wurm, Stefan (ed.) 1979. New Guinea and neighboring areas: A sociolinguistic laboratory. The Hague: Mouton.

Wurm, Stefan and Peter Mühlhäusler (eds) 1985. Handbook of Tok Pisin (New Guinea Pidgin). Canberra: Australian National University.


 

Australian English


1983. The Australian Encyclopaedia 4th edition. Sydney.

Arthur, Jay M. 1996. Aborginal English. A cultural study. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Baker, S. J. 1966. The Australian language. 2nd edition. Sydney: Currawong Press.

Baldauf, Richard and Allan Luke (eds) 1990. Language planning and education in Australia and the South Pacific. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Bell, Allan and Koenraad Kuiper (eds) 2000. New Zealand English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Bell, Jeanie 1982. Language planning for Australian Aboriginal languages. Alice Springs: Institute for Aboriginal Development.

Blair, David and Peter Collins (eds) 2001. English in Australia. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Brooks, Maureen and Joan Ritchie 1994. Words from the west. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Burridge, Kate and Jean Mulder 1998. English in Australia and New Zealand. An introduction to its history.. Oxford.

Clyne, Michael (ed.) 1976. Australia talks: Essays on the sociology of Australian immigrant and aboriginal languages. Canberra: National University Press.

Collins, J. 1975. The sources of Australian pronunciation. Working Papers of the Speech and Language Research Centre 116.

Collins, Peter and David Blair (eds) 1989. Australian English. The language of a new society. Brisbane: University of Queensland Press.

Dabke, R. 1976. Morphology of Australian English. München: Fink.

Dixon, Richard M. W. 1980. The languages of Australia. Cambridge: University Press.

Dixon, Richard M. W., William S. Ramson and Mandy Thomas 1990. Australian aboriginal words in English. Their origin and meaning. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Hammarström, Göran 1980. Australian English. Its origin and status. Hamburg: Buske.

Hornadge, Bill 1980. The Australian slanguage. A look at what we say and how we say it. Melbourne: Cassell Australia.

Horvath, Barbara M. 1985. Variation in Australian English. The sociolects of Sydney. Cambridge: University Press.

Hughes, J. M. 1989. Australian words and their origins. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Mitchell, A. G. 1946. The pronunciation of English in Australia. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.

Mitchell, A. G. and A. Delbridge 1965. The pronunciation of English in Australia. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.

Mitchell, A. G. 1965. The speech of Australian adolescents. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.

Ramson, William S. 1966. Australian English. An historical study of the vocabulary.. Canberra.

Ramson, William S. (ed.) 1970. English transported. Essays on Australian English. Canberra: National University Press.

Robinson, Julia (ed.) 2001. Voices of Queensland. Oxford: University Press.

Romaine, Suzanne (ed.) 1991. Language in Australia. Cambridge: University Press.

Turner, George W. (ed.) 1972. Good Australian English and good New Zealand English. Sydney: Reed Education.

Turner, George W. 1972. The English language in Australia and New Zealand. 2nd edition. London: Longman.

Wilkes, G. A. 1985. A dictionary of Autralian colloquialisms. Revised edition. Sydney: University Press.


 

New Zealand English


Baker, S. J. 1941. New Zealand slang. A dictionary of colloquialisms. Christchurch: Whitcombe and Tombs.

Bell, Allan and Janet Holmes (eds) 1990. New Zealand ways of speaking English. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Bell, Allan and Koenraad Kuiper (eds) 2000. New Zealand English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Gordon, Elizabeth and Tony Deverson 1998. New Zealand English and English in New Zealand. Auckland: New House Publishers.

Gordon, Elizabeth, Lyle Campbell, Jennifer Hay, Margaret MacLagan, Andrea Sudbury and Peter Trudgill 2004. New Zealand English: its Origins and Evolution. Cambridge: University Press.

Hay, Jennifer, Margaret A. Maclagan and Elizabeth Gordon 2008. New Zealand English. Edinburgh: University Press.

Orsman, Elizabeth and Harry Orsman 1994. The New Zealand dictionary. Auckland: New House.

Wall, A. 1959. New Zealand English. Christchurch: Whitcombe and Tombs.