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Dublin English

    Local Dublin English
    Non-vernacular Dublin English
    Dissociation, hypercorrection
    Switch-over accent
    Mergers and splits
    Advanced Dublin English
    Conservative Dublin English
    Accents on the edge of Dublin
    Dublin English in the 1990s
    Combined accents of Dublin English

Other varieties of English

    General Irish English
    Ulster English
    Newfoundland English

Text passages


Local Dublin English


  AI-centralisation (local Dublin speaker)

  Lack of retraction of TRAP before voiceless velar stop with local female Dublin speaker

  BIT BET BAT BUT BID BED BAD BUD (local speaker)

  BOUGHT BEER (local speaker)

  Breaking of AI

  Breaking of I

  CAR with tensing before R

  CAR with tensing plus R deletion

  CHOICE — no raising with local Dublin speaker

  CHOICE with raised onset 1

  CHOICE with raised onset 2

  Local Dublin speaker without CUT-PUT distinction

  DUBLIN (two pronunciations)

  Dublin with U

  FARM_with_low_rhoticity

  Final-T-Deletion (male local Dublin)

  GOAT with glottalisation

  KIT SORRY (local speaker Dublin)

  LAW LOW (local female speaker)

  Low Rhoticity (local Dublin)

  Medial T-to-H (local speaker)

  MONTH with U (local Dublin)

  NURSE-TERM-Distinction (local speaker)

  PreRhotic A-Tensing (local Dublin, 1)

  PreRhotic A-Tensing (local Dublin, 2)

  PreRhotic A-Tensing (local Dublin, wordlist style)

  PUT FOOT IT with glottalisation

  TERM with long low mid front vowel

  T-Glottalisation (local Dublin)

  BOUGHT Open (local speaker Dublin) 1

  BOUGHT Open (local speaker Dublin) 2

  T-to-H medially (local speaker)

  WALKED with low back vowel

  WET with glottal stop


Non-vernacular Dublin English


  AU-Fronting 1 (female Dublin)

  AU-Fronting 2 (female Dublin)

  BIT BET BAT BUT BID BED BAD BUD (non-local speaker)

  BOUGHT with T-flapping (non-local speaker)

  BOUGHT with raised vowel

  BUT BUG (fronted realisation non-local south Dublin)

  BUT BUG (somewhat raised vowel)

  CHOICE — raised onset with non-local Dublin speaker - 1

  CHOICE — raised onset with non-local Dublin speaker - 2

  Dental # alveolar distinction (non-local Dublin)

  DUB FastDelivery (non-local female)

  FARM with high rhoticity

  FIELD (two types of velarisation)

  FILM with schwa epenthesis, 1

  FILM with schwa epenthesis, 2

  GOOSE fronting (non local speaker 1)

  GOOSE fronting (non local speaker 2)

  HAPPY tensing

  LEFT with vowel lowering (young female Dublin)

  LETTER with lowering (young female Dublin)

  Identical realisation of MORNING and MOURNING

  The KIT-KISS distinction – realised by the words KIT, SORRY (non-local Dublin speaker)

  Different realisations of LAW and THOUGHT

  L-velarisation with non-local speaker (moderate)

  L-velarisation with non-local speaker (extreme)

  MORNING MOURNING Merger (non-local Dublin)

  RUN BUS (non-local speaker)

  SOFT lengthening with young non-local female speaker from Dublin

  STYLE with velarised L

  T frication (non-local Dublin)

  T IntervocalicTap (non-local speaker Dublin) 1

  T IntervocalicTap (non-local speaker Dublin) 2

  T IntervocalicTap (non-local speaker Dublin) 3

  T IntervocalicTap (non-local speaker Dublin) 4

  THEY with dental D (non-local Dublin)

  THOUGHT raised (non-local speaker Dublin) 1

  THOUGHT raised (non-local speaker Dublin) 2

  THOUGHT raised (non-local speaker Dublin) 3

  TRAP with A (non-local speaker)

  T-tapping in There-s a--leTTer

  Uptalk (High Rising Terminal) 1

  Uptalk (High Rising Terminal) 2

  Velarised-L (non-local speaker Dublin) 1

  Velarised-L (non-local speaker Dublin) 2

  WATER with intervocalic flap

  WET with fricative T

  WHICH-WITCH-NoDistinction (non-local Dublin)


Dissociation, hypercorrection


  SPARE with slight rounding

  SQUARE (rounding old Dublin 4 accent)

  STRUT-vowel central with slight rounding (sample word: bus)

  WATER and LETTER with [t] rather than [ʔ] (local Dublin speaker)


Switch-over accent


  Sample Sentences

  BOUGHT BEER (with hesitation)


Mergers and splits


  LAW THOUGHT no split (conservative Dublin)

  LAW THOUGHT Split (young female Dublin)

  MARRY MERRY MARY Distinction (conservative Dublin)

  MERRY MARY (slight distinction)

  MERRY MARY merger

  MERRY MARY merger (speaker 1)

  MERRY MARY merger (speaker 2)


Advanced Dublin English


  Retraction of TRAP before voiceless velar stop with three non-local female Dublin speakers

  BACK (3 advanced speakers)

  BACK (advanced+conservative)

  BACK (moderate extreme ejective)

  BACK (non-local Dublin 2011)

  BACK BAG (young female Dublin)

  BACK ejective (moderate)

  BACK with Q (3 speakers)

  BIT with lowering (speaker 2)

  Celbridge with lowering of first vowel

  D with slight affrication (advanced Dublin English)

  DIP with slight lowering 1

  DIP with slight lowering 2

  DIP DRESS BACK LOT (non-local speaker)

  DIP DRESS BACK LOT BUS (advanced speaker, 1)

  DIP DRESS BACK LOT BUS (advanced speaker, 2)

  DIP DRESS TRAP with lowering (young female non-local Dublin, 1)

  DIP DRESS TRAP with lowering (young female non-local Dublin, 2)

  DIP DRESS TRAP with lowering (young female non-local Dublin, 3)

  DO + DOWN with complete fronting

  DRESS vowel with slight lowering

  DRESS vowel with moderate lowering

  DRESS vowel with extreme lowering

  DRESS vowel with three degrees of lowering in succession

  Factory with BACK retraction

  FIELD with low offglide to L (young female Dublin)

  GAP with A and L velarisation (non-local speaker).mp3

  GOAT diphthongisation (strong-male speaker)

  GOOSE-fronting with young female Dublin speaker – 1

  GOOSE-fronting with young female Dublin speaker – 2

  Monkstown with vowel raising before nasal

  MORNING with nasal raising

  MOUTH two extremes

  MOUTH-fronting (5 stages)

  Extreme MOUTH-fronting

  On the Left (young female Dublin)

  Performances with NORTH-raising

  SELL with considerable lowering (non-local speaker)

  Television with vowel lowering

  Twelve with vowel lowering

  WEST WET with vowel lowering


Accents on the edge of Dublin


  Ashbourne – Co. Meath

  Bray – Co. Wicklow

  Celbridge – Co. Kildare

  Leixlip – Co. Kildare

  Skerries – Co. Dublin


Conservative Dublin English


  Conservative Dublin speaker with CUT-PUT distinction

  FIELD with alveolar L (conservative Dublin speaker)

  FOR # FOUR distinction (conservative Dublin)

  The KIT-KISS distinction (conservative Dublin speaker)

  PUT — PUSS — PUSH (conservative Dublin speaker)

  Identical realisations of LAW and THOUGHT

  Alveolar L (conservative Dublin speaker)

  MORNING MOURNING Distinction (conservative Dublin)

  NORTH FORCE Distinction (conservative Dublin)

  PUT PUSS PUSH (conservative Dublin speaker)

  RTE Older Presenter

  TIN # THIN distinction (conservative Dublin speaker)

  TIE # THIGH distinction (conservative Dublin speaker)

  T-lenited S SH distinctions

  TRAP Conservative Realisation

  WHICH-WITCH Distinction (conservative Dublin)


Dublin English in the 1990s


  AI-retraction (speaker has Dublin4 accent from the 1990s)

  Dublin 4 accent (female speaker born in the early 1970s)


Combined accents of Dublin English


  CHOICE (no raising-raising)

  GOAT-diphthongisation, 3 degrees

  Different degrees of GOAT-diphthongisation with different speakers

  Retroflexion scalar (Dublin speakers)

  RTE (four pronunciations)


General Irish English


  Alveolar-L (local speaker Kerry)

  Alveolar-L (rural speaker from Carlow)

  AU-NoFronting (rural speaker from Carlow)

  AU NoFronting (local speaker Kerry)

  Bagenalstown – Co. Carlow

  BATH short (local speaker Kilkenny)

  Carlow Alveolar-L

  Carlow AU-NoFronting

  Carlow M 20 (sample sentences)

  Carlow SORE-NoRetroflexion

  FACE-breaking (Dundalk speaker)

  GOAT with monophthongal [o:] (local speaker from Co. Kerry, south-west Ireland)

  NORTH — mid pronunciation (Co. Kerry, local speaker)

  NORTH very open (local speaker Kilkenny)

  NORTH and FORCE (local speaker from Kilkenny city)

  SOFT short vowel (local speaker Kerry)

  SORE non-retroflex (rural speaker Carlow)

  SORE non-retroflex (rural speaker Kerry)

  THERE with alveolar stop (local speaker)

  They Keep a Goose in the Backyard (Cobh-M 40)

  THOUGHT with alveolar stop (rural speaker)

  Uvular R (speaker from Cavan)

  Uvular R (speaker from Drogheda)

  WHICH voiceless (speaker from Sligo)


Ulster English


  AI – Tensed Realisation

  DH – Intervocalic Deletion

  FACE – Vowel Breaking

  KIT – Vowel Lowering

  Lack of Distinctive Vowel Length

  Retroflex R

  T – Intervocalic Tap

  TRAP – Vowel Retraction

  Velar Palatalisation

  Belfast accent, young male

  Derry accent, young male

  DH – Alveolar (speaker from Cavan)

  DH-L – shift (male Derry city)

  Sentence ‘They didn’t bother to meet him’ spoken by Ulster Scots speaker


Newfoundland English


  Newfoundland Irish English (sample 1)

  Newfoundland Irish English (sample 2)


Text passages


  Local Dublin speaker

  Non-local Dublin speaker

  Ulster Scots speaker