Ingo Bachmann, M.A.


University of Duisburg-Essen
Department of Anglophone Studies
R12 S04 H79
Universitätsstr. 12
45141 Essen

Room: R12 S04 H79

E-mail: ingo.bachmann [at]

Phone: +49 201 183-4712

Office hours


Curriculum Vitae

Since 10/2007

Research assistant and lecturer in the Department of Anglophone Studies, University of Duisburg-Essen (under Prof. Dr. Claudia Claridge)

2007 - 2010

English lecturer at Volkshochschulen Duisburg & Essen

06/2007- 08/2007

Internship: "Project Management E-Learning" at reflact AG, Oberhausen


M.A. Degree in English, German linguistics and economics, University of Duisburg-Essen

Thesis: "Civil Partnership in the UK: A Corpus-Based Analysis"


Student assistant in the Department of Anglophone Studies, University of Duisburg-Essen

Since 02/2004

Private tutor of English and German at Nachhilfeinstitut Abacus


English studies at the University of Sunderland, England


Begin course of studies in English, German linguistics and economics at the University of Duisburg-Essen


Initial course of studies in economic sciences at the University of Duisburg


Graduation from Kopernikus-Gymasium Walsum, Duisburg


Research Interests

Ingo is currently working on his doctoral thesis on "The functions of pseudo-coordinative and -constructions". His major interests of research are corpus linguistics, grammatical variation, language change and language & sexual identity.


PhD-project: The functions of pseudo-coordinative and -constructions

Verbal pseudo-coordination has been analysed to some extent already. Pseudo-coordination of the form V-and -V is commonly classified according to the first verb: (1) try -and -V, (2) motion verb-and -V (go , come , etc) and (3) posture/stance verb-and -V (sit , stand , etc.)

(1) She decided to try and visit him . (BNC A03 845)

(2) Mark always goes and says hello when he's home, you know . (BNC KCL 4236)

(3) Also, it isn't physically possible to sit and listen to a rap album all the way through . (BNC A8F 182)

This study will be the first comprehensive corpus-based evaluation of pseudo-coordination. Starting with a definition of verbal pseudo-coordination which can be employed in corpus-based research,  I set out to give a description of the use of pseudo-coordination in British English. An interesting aspect mentioned in the literature is that pseudo-coordination typically expresses a single semantic idea. I want to contribute to this argument and analyse if language users actually regard pseudo-coordination as a single semantic unit.

What needs to be tackled as well is that what is expressed by pseudo-coordination can be expressed in roughly similar ways by using different structures such as verb + to -infinitive, verb + bare infinitive or verb + gerund. The nature of this variation and factors determining it (e.g. register, sociolinguistic variables) have not been analysed empirically to an appropriate extent. An important factor in this regard seems to be the variety of English used, so a comparison of British and American English (plus maybe further varieties) is vitally needed.

Apart from synchronic analyses a diachronic view on pseudo-coordination might shed more light on its status in the English language. Pseudo-coordination seems to be a very old phenomenon and has been around since Old English. However, there is no account of the diachronic development of pseudo-coordination and its competing structures to see if a trend can be uncovered. Linked to the diachronic perspective is the question if the first verb in pseudo-coordinative structures is on the way to being grammaticalised.

Leisure-time project: The discursive construction of gay and lesbian relationships

Recently, there has been a change in gay and lesbian politics from identity issues to relationship acceptance and recognition. This is reflected, for example, in the ongoing discussion about gay marriage. However, we are confronted with a lack of research on the discursive construction of gay and lesbian relationships. Questions awaiting an answer are:

  • Are same-sex relationships constructed as different from heterosexual relationships?
  • Are they seen as problematic or beneficial (to society)?
  • Are they normalized? (=homonormativity?)
  •  ...

So far, three corpora have been compiled to analyse how gay and lesbian relationships are discursively constructed in today's society. My approach is corpus-based (or –driven), using keywords, collocates, concordances, etc.

1) Analysis of the debates in the UK Parliament that led to the implementation of civil partnerships (Bachmann 2011)

 Same-sex relationships are constructed

  • as different from heterosexual relationships
  • as one out of many other disadvantaged relationships in society
  • as beneficial to society, etc.

2) Analysis of labelling strategies in the British press in their coverage of civil partnerships (Bachmann in prep.)

  • Matthew Roche, 46, and Christopher Cramp became the first gay couple in England to form a civil partnership earlier this month. (The Daily Telegraph, 22.12.2005)
  • The first same-sex couple to 'marry' under new civil partnership legislation have tied the knot in a historic ceremony at Belfast City Hall today. (Daily Mail, 19.12.2005)
  • A LESBIAN couple beamed with happiness yesterday after they got married in Britain's first gay wedding. (Daily Mirror, 20.12.2005)

3) Analysis of gay and lesbian online dating/relationship advice and guides (in progress)

Working assumption:

  • Gay and lesbian relationships are not as rigidly socially constructed as heterosexual couples in terms of gender roles and sexual morals

Some potential research questions:

  • Do the questions asked by gay men and lesbians follow 'traditional' gender roles and models in relationships? Or do they involve other 'non-traditional' models?
  • Does the advice given propagate 'traditional' (= heteronormative) or 'non-traditional' models?
  • Do gay and lesbian self-help guides potentially set up a more rigid frame for what counts as a good and worthy same-sex relationship (= homonormativity)?
  • Do gay and lesbian self-help guides need to construct differences in gay men and in lesbians to work, similar to the 'difference' discourse regarding female and male heterosexuals?



In preparation

  • "What shall we call it: Civil partnership, (gay) marriage or '(gay) marriage'? - A corpus-based analysis of labelling strategies in the British press."

Conference papers

  • "Employing corpus linguistic tools in studying the construction of same-sex relationships in the British Press." Invited colloquium "The Use of Corpora in Studying Social Issues" at 47th BAAL Conference (British Association for Applied Linguistics), University of Warwick, UK, 4th to 6th September 2014.
  • "The pragmatics of the go-V and go-and-V constructions in spoken British and American English." The Fourth International Conference on the Linguistics of Contemporary English (ICLCE 4), University of Osnabrück, Germany, 19th to 23rd July 2011.
  • "How do we learn what a successful gay and lesbian relationship is (and needs)? - The discursive construction of gay and lesbian relationships in dating and relationship guides." 6th Corpus Linguistics Conference. University of Birmingham, UK, 20th to 22th July 2011.
  • "Did go-V oust go-and-V? A study of the diachronic development of both constructions in American English." ICAME 32. University of Oslo, Norway, 1st to 5th June 2011.
  • "Heteronormativity at work?! Analysing the debates on civil partnership in the UK Parliament." 38th Österreichische Linguistiktagung (ÖLT)/Workshop: Queer Linguistics - Between Theory and Applicability. University of Graz, Austria, 24th to 26th October 2010.
  • "Civil partnership in the press: A corpus-based critical analysis." 3rd Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis Across Disciplines Conference (CADAAD). University of Lodz, Poland, 13th to 15th September 2010.
  • "Sit-Ving vs. sit-and-V: Determinants of variation in the verbal complement of sit." ICAME 31. University of Giessen, Germany, 26th to 30th May 2010.
  • "Civil partnership - Gay marriage in all but name!? Uncovering discourses of same-sex relationships." 5th Corpus Linguistics Conference. University of Liverpool, UK, 21st to 23rd July 2009. 
  • "Determinants of variation in the verbal complement of go." The Third International Conference on the Linguistics of Contemporary English (ICLCE 3). University of London, UK, 14th to 17th July 2009.

Guest lecture

  • "Go-and-V vs. go-V vs. go-to-V: (Problematising) determinants of variation" Guest lecture at Uppsala Universitet, Sweden, 27th February 2012. (ERASMUS scholarship)
  • "Homosexuelle Identität(en) und Sprache." Im Rahmen der SchwuBiLe-Reihe "Homosexualität und ...". Universität Duisburg-Essen, 9th May 2011.


Courses Taught

  • Introduction to Corpus Linguistics
  • Grammar of Spoken English
  • Coordination, Subordination and Related Phenomena
  • English Syntax
  • Grammatical Variation
  • British English vs American English Grammar
  • Changing American English
  • Exploring English Grammar - An Introduction to Functional Grammar
  • English Word Formation
  • Approaches to Language Change
  • Cognitive Linguistics
  • Pragmatics
  • Language and Sexuality
  • "That's So Gay!" - Queer Explorations in Language and Linguistics
  • The Language of Politics
  • Views of Linguistic Correctness
  • American English Television Dialogues
  • Language and the Internet
  • Linguistics Meets Literature - Doing Stylistics
  • Introduction to Linguistics
  • Foundation Course (Language course)