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Annika Drozella


9. Anhang

Education Techniques for Children with FAS/FAE

Valborg Kvigne, Judy Struck, Ellen Engelhardt and Tracy West

 

Education Techniques for Preschool Children wirh FAS/FAE

 

I.

Environment

A.

Calm and quiet.

1.

Soft music may be calming.

2.

Tone down classroom so rooms are not overly stimulating.
  1. Keep a minimal number of objects hanging from the ceiling and on the walls.
  2. Use calm colors of paint on the walls.

3.

Use headphones for quiet time. (Students with FAS/FAE are not always able to block out other noises).

B.

Structure

1.

Establish a few simple rules.

2.

Enforce the same rules in the same way.

3.

Use the same language when forcing the rules.

C.

Transition from one activity to another activity

1.

Tell the children what they will be doing: "We’ll finish painting then we’ll eat a snack.

2.

Give the child an object to help make the transition. The child could carry a book to story time, a puppet to the puppet story, or a toothbrush after snack time.

II.

Language Development

A.

Children who are not talking.

1.

Begin with simple story books.

2.

The teacher can touch an object and name the object for the child. The teacher touches a table and says to the child "table".

3.

Use real objects like "trees, cars, dog" and name the objects.

B.

Children who are talking using single words.

1.

If the child says "drink", say to the child "more drink" to stimulate more words in the child’s vocabulary.

2.

Expand the child’s vocabulary slowly. When the child starts using two words at a time, start using three words "want more drink"

3.

Talk with the child at the child’s level. Use short sentences.

C.

Poor articulation.

1.

A speech therapist would be a good resource for the child and teacher.

2.

The teacher needs to model proper pronounciation.

3.

Go around the classroom, touch objects, and name the object. Have the child do the same thing.

4.

Meal time. Have the child say what he/she wants rather than just giving the child what one thinks the child wants.

5.

Musik activities can help the children learning vovabulary.
  1. Good morning song.
  2. Song before the children eat.
  3. Name songs.
  4. Circle game songs – sit down, stand up, name games.

D.

Sign language may be helpful in teachiong children with FAS even when they do not have a hearing loss. Sign language is concrete and visible an dcan be used along with verbal language.

III.

Mathematics

A.

Memorized counting from one to ten does not mean the child understands the numbers.

B.

Teach the child what the number "one" means before any more numbers are taught to the child: "Give me one crayon." "Put one napkin on the table."

C.

Cut the numbers out of paper. Glue oatmeal, rice, glitter, etc. to the number so the child can see, feel, and hear the number.

D.

Touch and count objects.

IV.

Alphabet

A.

Make letters with paper and glue objects to the letter.

B.

Match letters and words to pictures

C.

Use the sounds of the letters repeatedly: J, "juice", "jump", "jacket" etc.

D.

Cut out a letter out of sandpaper and have the child trace the letter on the blackboard.

E.

Write a letter on the blackboard and have the child trace the letter on the blackboard.

F.

Make dots on a paper in the shape of a letter and have the child connect the dots to make the letter, gradually decreasing the number of dots to connect to make the letter.

G.

Make letters with jiggler jello.

H.

When a child is learning to write his/her name, the child may find it easier to use all capital letters at the beginning.

V.

Sensory Stimulation to Teach Each Concept

A.

Teach a conceot through different sensory methods: Teaching the color "orange".

1.

Wear orange clothes.

2.

Paint with orange paint.

3.

Use orange construction paper for projects.

4.

Serve oranges for a snack.

5.

Sit on an orange rug.

B.

Use objects as much as possible to teach concepts such as teaching about "circles".

1.

Laminate polka dot fabric.

2.

Use a cookie cutter to cut circle sandwiches.

3

Cut circles from construction paper and glue Cheerios on the paper.

C.

Use "concrete" teaching activities.

Example: Child is told to stay in the yard but continuously wanders into the street.. Parents obtained four large orange cones and had the child stay inside the four cones. Parents gradually expanded the cones.

Example: "What do you want?" This question is very abstract. Give child choices he/she can see, feel, touch, and hear.

VI.

Managing Hyperactivity

A.

Keep the environment structured.

B.

Make a picture calendar.

1.

Make a board with hooks.

2.

Laminate pictures of activities for the whole day. Examples: Have a picture of a child taking jacket off and hanging up the jacket. Have a picture of a child putting puzzle together.

3.

As the child completes each activity during the day, the child takes the picture off the hook, turns it over, and hangs the picture back on the hook. The child knows that he/she has completed tha activity.

C.

Give the child a choice from two or three toys and plenty of time to make a choice.

D.

Place each activity in two baskets.

1.

Have two baskets for a puzzle, two baskets for a pegboard, two baskets for a matching activity, two baskets for lacing cards, two baskets for scissors and paper activity, etc.

2.

Take the activity out of the "start" basket. When the child has finished the activity, the child puts the activity in the "finish" basket.

E.

Keep the designated activities in the same place.

F.

Hyperactive children should sit on a chair rather than on the floor. The chair helps keep the child in a specific space. Show the child how to sit in the chair, if necessary (feet flat on the floor, hands on the side, sitting up straight).

G.

Have the activity at the table ready. The child probably will not sit at the table very long waiting for the teacher to bring an activity.

H.

Structure the day alternating quiet time and active time.

I.

Hepl the child control tantrums.

1.

Take the cjild to a different room. Lullaby music in this room may help calm the child.

2.

Hold the child.

3.

Teacher’s body language should not get the child excited. Talk in a calm voice and walk slowly. If the teacher is relaxed, this will help the child relax.

4.

Determine what happened before the tantrum occurred. Look for antecedents, what caused the child to lose his/her temper.

5.

Look at different ways to eliminate the chances of the child throwing a tantrum. If the child has an extremely difficult time with loud noises and lots of activity, the child should be taught in a relatively quiet and calm area.

6.

Reduce the likelihood of the child having a tantrum by teaching the child new ways of dealing with his/her stress. Teach the child to say, "I’m mad."

J.

Determine wether the child’s diet could be a contributing factor for the behavior.

K.

Observe the child for any contributing health problems. For example, with an ear infection, child may pull at his/her ears. Ask the child to "show me where you hurt."

L.

Ignore negative behavior whenever possible and avoid overreaction.

M.

Build in positive reinforcement, like hugs. When the child finishes an activity or does a good job, let the child know he/she will get a hug. Often children with FAS/FAE like to be hugged.

N.

If the child does not need sleep at nap time, the child may benefit from having activities such as riding a tricycle in the hall.

VII.

Short Attention Span

A.

Determine how long the child is working on an activity.

B.

Ask the child to do "one more". Example: If the child is drawing circles on a paper and the child decides to quit, have the child drawone more circle. The teacher should never make the child do the activity more than once if the teacher said "draw one more circle".

VIII.

Social Behavior

A.

Show the child how to share toys. You may need to use a timer to share the most popular toys.

B.

Reach the child how to be a friend, demonstrating with puppets or dolls.

C.

Teach the child how to sit with a friend at the table.

D.

Pair children for a week so the child with developmental disabilities can learn from the other child.

IX.

Eye-Hand Coordination

A.

Use puzzles with knobs on the pieces, lace cards (may need masking tape on the end), clothes pins to squeeze, pegs to pound in pegboard.

B.

The teacher may need to guide the child through the activity and then encourage the child to do the activity on his/her own. The teacher could pick up the puzzle piece for the child and put in the right place in the puzzle or lace the first holes of the lacing board.

X.

Other Considerations

A.

The following evaluations may be helpful in learning more about the child’s development and assist in planning the teachers activities.

1.

Speech and language evaluations.

2.

Psychological evaluations.

3.

Motor evaluations.

B.

Children with FAS/FAE usually need more one-to-one teaching.

 

 

Education Techniques for Junior and Senior High School Students with FAS/FAE

 

I.

Environment

 

A.

Calm and quiet.

 

 

1.

Soft calm music may relax the classroom during breaks.

 

 

2.

Tone down classroom so rooms are not overly stimulating.

 

 

 

a. Keep a minimal number of objects hanging from the ceiling and on the walls.

 

 

 

b. Use calm colors of paint on the walls.

 

 

 

c. Reduce classroom clutter.

 

 

 

d. Use bulletin boards as teaching tools and soft colors. (Bulletin boards could be covered when not in use.)

 

 

3.

Use headphones for qiuet time. (Students with FAS/FAE are not always able to block out other noises and may be distracted by a teacher talking with another student and even a ticking clock.)

 

B.

Structure

 

 

1.

Establish a few simple rules.

 

 

2.

Enforce the same language when enforcing the rules.

 

 

3.

Use the same language when enforcing rules.

 

C.

Transition from one activity to another activity

 

 

1.

Give the student reminders for the ending and beginning of activities. Use a tactile signal. Touch shoulder, tap elbow, and say "The bell will ring in five minutes, you need to finish up. We will go to lunch when the bell rings."

 

 

2.

Have the student follow a fairly consistent routine every day.

 

 

3.

Provide notebooks for students that have all the students‘ classroom activities in order for the day. This gives the student a concrete item with which to structure his/her day.

 

 

4.

Have the students carry the book to the reading area.

 

 

5.

Give students several breaks during the day. Students may need sleep during the day, to get up and move around more frequently than other students, and may need food snacks. Plan activities to facilitate movement and creative work between seat work assignments.

 

 

6.

Class periods should not exceed thirty minutes.

II. Language Development

 

A.

Recognize that students with FAS/FAE may have delayed language development. Use concrete basic language when giving instruction. Use simple sentences and avoid giving more than one instruction per sentence.

 

B.

Sign language may be helpful to teach students even when they do not have a hearing loss. Sign language is concrete and visible and can be used along with verbal language.

III.

Mathematics

 

A.

Teach functional math – money, time, practical uses of addition and subtraction.

 

B.

Encourage students to use strategies for counting, such as fingers or counting, such as a calculator. These techniques should not be the first choice but should not be ruled out.

Note: Math seems to be the most difficult subjekt for the students with FAS/FAE. Memorizing the multiplication table may not be successful with all students who have FAS/FAE. Division may also be difficult.

IV.

Reading

 

A.

Teaching left to right direction. Some students may have difficulty focusing their eyes on the left side of the page and moving their eyes to the right.

 

 

1.

If the students uses a piece of paper to follow the line across the page, the student may have an easier time reading.

 

 

2.

Use a green marker at the left side changing to red at the right side for written work.

 

 

3.

Use colored arrows to signal starting points and left to right dirction.

 

B.

Provide the students with books that follow student’s interest and independent reading levels. (Independent reading means the student can read 90% of the words in the book.)

 

C.

Encourage reading for enjoyment and development independence.

 

 

1.

Incorporate popular magazines, newspapers, and school paper into reading program.

 

 

2.

Emphasize reading as a means to communications – note writing, letter writing, memos, posters, etc.

 

D.

Read aloud to the students daily and provide uninterrupted silent reading periods.

V.

Sensory Stimulation and Concrete Activities to Teach Each Concept

 

A.

Provide hands-on materials whenever possible.

 

B.

Take students to actual site to teach learning objectives.

 

C.

Allow students to make concrete choices. Instead of asking the abstract question "What do you want?" give the child choices he/she can see, feel, touch, hear.

VI.

Managing Hyperactivity and Attention Deficits

 

A.

Provide structure, predictable routine, and as few rules as possible.

 

B.

Allow students to sit in their chairs as comfortably as possible. Rapidly growing students are often unable to maintain strict posture and enforcing it can be frustrating for both teachsers and students.

 

C.

Limit time frames for one activity to no more than thirty minutes if possible.

 

D.

Help the students control tantrums.

 

 

1.

Remain calm and quiet. Teacher’s body language should not get the student excited. Talk in a calm voice and walk slowly. If the teacher is relaxed, this will help the student relax.

 

 

2.

Let the student know there is a protocol for loss of control. Taking the student’s hand and holding it a short time will give the student a signal that the teacher thinks the student is losing control. If restraint is necessary, the teacher needs to exercise care and control. Talk to the student, telling him/her that you are helping him/her to control his/her behavior. Example: "I am going to hold on to you until you are calm. Are you feeling better? Let me know when you are ready for me to let go."

 

 

3.

Take the student to a different room if necessary. Soft music and soft colors in the room may help calm the student. Talk to the student in a calm, soft voice. Ask the student to tell the teacher when he/she is ready to go back to the classroom.

 

 

4.

Determine what happened before the tantrum occurred. Look for antecedents, what caused the student to lose his/her temper.

 

 

5.

Look at different ways to eliminate the chances of the student throwing a tantrum. If the student has an extremely difficult time with loud noises and lots of activity, the student should be taught in a relatively quiet and calm area.

 

 

6.

Reduce the likelihood of the student having a tantrum by teaching the student new ways of dealing with his/her stress. Teach the student to say "I’m mad."

 

E.

Enclose shelves and book cases if possible to eliminate visual distraction.

 

F.

Use vivid colors, sound and movement to emphasize important concepts.

 

G.

During organized activities, hyperactivitive students need structure. They need to know the sequence of activity, what is expected of them, and what behaviors will be acceptable. Example: "During this activity we will stay in our chairs. There will be no talking. Keep your eyes on your own paper. If you want help, raise your hand and I will come to help you."

 

H.

Balance loosely structured activities to give the students opportunity to move about, visit, and relax.

 

I.

Balance active and quiet activities.

 

J.

Structure the day, alternative quiet time and active time.

 

K.

Observe the student for any contributing health problems. For example, with an ear infection, the student may pull at his(her ears. Ask the students to "Show me where you hurt." Look for behaviors which may signify visual problems: abnormal head posturing, squinting, holding paper close to face, obvious errors made when working from the chalk board.

 

L.

Ignore negative behavior whenever possible and avoid overreaction.

 

M.

Build in positive reinforcement.

 

 

1.

As the student finishes each activity on the picture calendar, give student positive reinforcement for his/her efforts in completing the activity.

 

 

2.

When the student does a good job on a project, tell the student he/she did right. Example: "I really like the way you read the whole story."

VII.

Social Behavior

 

A.

Teachers needs to consult the school counselor. It is important that teachers and counselors work together using complimentary techniques to best serve the student in the following areas:

 

 

1.

Inappropriate sexual behavior.

 

 

2.

Depression.

 

 

3.

Loneliness and isolation.

 

 

4.

Inapprpopriate expectations for work, school, and independence.

 

B.

Be emphatic, firm, and realistic about expectations and performance from students.

 

C.

Treat students with FAS/FAE as valuable, worthwhile human beings with gifts to share.

VIII.

Vocational Education

 

A.

Continue practicing the basic skills necessary to live independently as adults, especially daily living and survival skills.

 

B.

Help students learn how to transfer their skills using a variety of settings and people.

 

C.

Curriculum should focus on recognizing and coping with being labeled as "different".

 

D.

Curriculum should focus on assisting students to function as social human beings.

 

 

1.

Understanding the rules of social interaction.

 

 

2.

Take on responsibilities.

 

 

3.

Making decisions and realizing their consequences.

 

 

4.

Developing and practicing independent living skills within a group setting such as getting along with others in the same living space, sharing, responsibilities, cooking, and personal hygiene.

 

E.

Curriculum should assist students function in the world of work.

 

 

1.

Identify individual interests and aptitudes.

 

 

2.

Develop self scheduling skills, community mobility skills, rule-governed behavior, etc.

 

 

3.

Develop and practice job related skills.

IX.

Other Consideration

 

A.

The following evaluations may be helpful in learning more about the student’s development and assist in planning the teachers activities.

 

 

1.

Speech and language evaluations.

 

 

2.

Psyhological evaluations.

 

 

3.

Motor evaluations.

 

B.

Students with FAS/FAE usually need more one-to-one teaching.

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14. Januar 1999