Maritta Heisel

Prof. Dr. Maritta Heisel
Raum BB 919
Tel. : +49 203 379 3465
Fax : +49 379 4490
E-Mail : maritta.heisel[at]uni-duisburg-essen.de

Research
  • Compliance [Veröffentlichungen]
  • Formal Methods [Veröffentlichungen]
  • Methodology [Veröffentlichungen]
  • Patterns [Veröffentlichungen]
  • Privacy [Veröffentlichungen]
  • Requirements Engineering [Veröffentlichungen]
  • Safety [Veröffentlichungen]
  • Security [Veröffentlichungen]
  • Software Architecture [Veröffentlichungen]
  • Software Quality
    Veröffentlichungen:

    QuickSearch:   Number of matching entries: 0.

    YearTitleAuthorJournal/ProceedingsPublisher
    2017 Computer-Aided Identification and Validation of Intervenability Requirements Meis, R. & Heisel, M. Information    
    Abstract: Privacy as a software quality is becoming more important these days and should not be underestimated during the development of software that processes personal data. The privacy goal of intervenability, in contrast to unlinkability (including anonymity and pseudonymity), has so far received little attention in research. Intervenability aims for the empowerment of end-users by keeping their personal data and how it is processed by the software system under their control. Several surveys have pointed out that the lack of intervenability options is a central privacy concern of end-users. In this paper, we systematically assess the privacy goal of intervenability and set up a software requirements taxonomy that relates the identi?ed intervenability requirements with a taxonomy of transparency requirements. Furthermore, we provide a tool-supported method to identify intervenability requirements from the functional requirements of a software system. This tool-supported method provides the means to elicit and validate intervenability requirements in a computer-aided way. Our combined taxonomy of intervenability and transparency requirements gives a detailed view on the privacy goal of intervenability and its relation to transparency. We validated the completeness of our taxonomy by comparing it to the relevant literature that we derived based on a systematic literature review. The proposed method for the identi?cation of intervenability requirements shall support requirements engineers to elicit and document intervenability requirements in compliance with the EU General Data Protection Regulation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Information2017,
      year = {2017},
      title = {Computer-Aided Identification and Validation of Intervenability Requirements},
      author = {Meis, Rene and Heisel, Maritta},
      journal = {Information},
      volume = {8},
      number = {30},
      url = {http://www.mdpi.com/2078-2489/8/1/30},
      doi = {10.3390/info8010030}
    }
    
    2017 Towards Systematic Privacy and Operability (PRIOP) Studies Meis, R. & Heisel, M. ICT Systems Security and Privacy Protection   Springer  
    Abstract: The assessment of privacy properties of software systems gains more and more importance nowadays. This is, on the one hand because of increasing privacy concerns of end-users due to numerous reported privacy breaches, and on the other hand due to stricter data protection regulations, e.g., the EU General Data Protection Regulation that prescribes an assessment of the privacy implications that a project possibly has. The lack of systematic methods to assist a comprehensive and detailed privacy analysis makes it hard for analysts to address the end-users’ and legal requirements. In this paper, we adopt the principles of the hazard and operability (HAZOP) studies, which have successfully been used for safety analyses, to privacy to provide a systematic method to identify the relevant privacy threats for a software to be developed. We propose a method called privacy and operability (PRIOP) studies that allows to systematically analyze the potential privacy issues that a software to be developed might raise, based on the software’s functionality at the requirements level.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{SEC17,
      year = {2017},
      title = {Towards Systematic Privacy and Operability ({PRIOP}) Studies},
      booktitle = {ICT Systems Security and Privacy Protection},
      author = {Meis, Rene and Heisel, Maritta},
      publisher = {Springer},
      volume = {502},
      series = {IFIP AICT},
      pages = {427--441},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-58469-0_29},
      doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-58469-0_29}
    }
    
    2017 Pattern-based Representation of Privacy Enhancing Technologies as Early Aspects Meis, R. & Heisel, M. Trust, Privacy, and Security in Digital Business   Springer International Publishing  
    Abstract: Several regulations and standards emphasize that privacy
    shall already be considered from the very beginning in software development.
    A crucial point during the development of a privacy-friendly
    software is the selection and integration of measures that implement speci
    c privacy requirements or mitigate threats to these. These measures
    are called privacy enhancing technologies (PETs). PETs have a crosscutting
    nature. That is, a PET needs often to be integrated into several
    base functionalities of the software-to-be. For example, anonymization
    techniques need to be integrated into functionalities that shall reveal
    originally identi able information in an anonymized form to others. One
    possibility to handle cross-cutting concerns already on the requirements
    level is aspect-oriented requirements engineering. In this paper, we show
    how PETs can be represented as early aspects and how these can be
    integrated into a given requirements model in problem frames notation.
    Furthermore, we show how PETs can be represented as patterns to help
    requirements engineers to identify and select appropriate PETs that address
    the privacy requirements they have to satisfy. We use the PET
    Privacy-ABCs (Attribute-Based Credentials) to illustrate our approach.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{TrustBus17,
      year = {2017},
      title = {Pattern-based Representation of Privacy Enhancing Technologies as Early Aspects},
      booktitle = {Trust, Privacy, and Security in Digital Business},
      author = {Meis, Rene and Heisel, Maritta},
      publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
      volume = {10442},
      series = {LNCS},
      pages = {49--65},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-64483-7_4},
      doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-64483-7_4}
    }
    
    2016 Variability for Qualities in Software Architecture Alebrahim, A., Faßbender, S., Filipczyk, M., Goedicke, M., Heisel, M. & Zdun, U. SIGSOFT Softw. Eng. Notes   ACM  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Alebrahim:2016:VQS:2853073.2853095,
      year = {2016},
      title = {Variability for Qualities in Software Architecture},
      author = {Alebrahim, Azadeh and Fa{\ss}bender, Stephan and Filipczyk, Martin and Goedicke, Michael and Heisel, Maritta and Zdun, U.},
      journal = {SIGSOFT Softw. Eng. Notes},
      publisher = {ACM},
      volume = {41},
      number = {1},
      pages = {32--35},
      url = {https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=2853073.2853095},
      doi = {10.1145/2853073.2853095}
    }
    
    2016 Supporting Privacy Impact Assessments using Problem-based Privacy Analysis Meis, R. & Heisel, M. Software Technologies - 10th International Joint Conference, ICSOFT 2015, Revised Selected Papers   Springer  
    Abstract: Privacy-aware software development is gaining more and more importance for nearly all information systems that are developed nowadays. As a tool to force organizations and companies to consider privacy properly during the planning and the execution of their projects, some governments advise to perform privacy impact assessments (PIAs). During a PIA, a report has to be created that summarizes the consequence on privacy the project may have and how the organization or company addresses these consequences. As basis for a PIA, it has to be documented which personal data is collected, processed, stored, and shared with others in the context of the project. Obtaining this information is a difficult task that is not yet well supported by existing methods. In this paper, we present a method based on the problem-based privacy analysis (ProPAn) that helps to elicit the needed information for a PIA systematically from a given set of functional requirements. Our tool-supported method shall reduce the effort that has to be spent to elicit the information needed to conduct a PIA in a way that the information is as complete and consistent as possible.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{CCIS16,
      year = {2016},
      title = {Supporting Privacy Impact Assessments using Problem-based Privacy Analysis},
      booktitle = {Software Technologies - 10th International Joint Conference, {ICSOFT} 2015, Revised Selected Papers},
      author = {Meis, Rene and Heisel, Maritta},
      publisher = {Springer},
      volume = {586},
      series = {Communications in Computer and Information Science},
      pages = {79--98},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-30142-6_5},
      doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-30142-6_5}
    }
    
    2016 The Six-Variable Model - Context Modelling Enabling Systematic Reuse of Control Software Ulfat-Bunyadi, N., Meis, R. & Heisel, M. Proceedings of the 11th International Joint Conference on Software Technologies (ICSOFT 2016)   SciTePress  
    Abstract: A control system usually consists of some control software as well as sensors and actuators to monitor and control certain quantities in the environment. The context of the control software thus consists of the sensors and actuators it uses and the environment. When starting development of the control software, its context is often not predefined or given. There are contextual decisions the developers can make (e.g. which sensors/actuators/other systems to use). By means of these decisions, the context is defined step by step. Existing approaches (like the Four-Variable Model) call for documenting the environmental quantities (monitored, controlled, input, and output variables) that are relevant after making these contextual decisions. The environmental quantities that have originally been relevant (i.e. before deciding which sensors/actuators/other systems to use) are not documented. This results in problems when the software shall later on be reused in another, slightly different setting (e.g. with additional sensors). Then, it is hard for developers to decide which environmental quantities are still relevant for the software. In this paper, we suggest an extended version of the Four-Variable Model, the Six-Variable Model, and, based on that, a context modelling method, that combines existing approaches. The benefit of our method is that the environmental quantities that are relevant before and after decision making are documented as well as the contextual decisions themselves and the options that were selectable. In this way, later reuse of the software is facilitated.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{ICSOFT16a,
      year = {2016},
      title = {The Six-Variable Model - Context Modelling Enabling Systematic Reuse of Control Software},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 11th International Joint Conference on Software Technologies {(ICSOFT} 2016)},
      author = {Ulfat-Bunyadi, Nelufar and Meis, Rene and Heisel, Maritta},
      publisher = {SciTePress},
      pages = {15--26},
      url = {http://www.scitepress.org/DigitalLibrary/Link.aspx?doi=10.5220/0005944100150026},
      doi = {10.5220/0005944100150026}
    }
    
    2016 Introducing Product Line Engineering in a Bottom-up Approach Ulfat-Bunyadi, N., Meis, R., Mohammadi, N. G. & Heisel, M. Proceedings of the 11th International Joint Conference on Software Technologies (ICSOFT 2016)   SciTePress  
    Abstract: The optimal way for introducing a product line is to set up a completely new product line by developing a reuse infrastructure for the whole range of products right from the start. However, in practice, product line engineering is frequently introduced by a company after having developed a number of products separately (i.e. in single system engineering). The challenge then consists of defining the product line based on these existing products, i.e. to a certain extent these products have to be re-engineered. More precisely, two problems need to be solved: first, commonality and variability among the existing products needs to be identified to define a common set of core assets, and, second, the way in which future systems (i.e. products of the product line) will be developed based on this common set of assets needs to be defined. The method we suggest in this paper solves these two problems. Our method focuses on control systems, i.e. systems which monitor/control certain quantities in their environment.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{ICSOFT16b,
      year = {2016},
      title = {Introducing Product Line Engineering in a Bottom-up Approach},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 11th International Joint Conference on Software Technologies {(ICSOFT} 2016)},
      author = {Ulfat-Bunyadi, Nelufar and Meis, Rene and Mohammadi, Nazila Gol and Heisel, Maritta},
      publisher = {SciTePress},
      pages = {146--153},
      url = {http://www.scitepress.org/DigitalLibrary/Link.aspx?doi=10.5220/0006006001460153},
      doi = {10.5220/0006006001460153}
    }
    
    2016 Computer-Aided Identification and Validation of Privacy Requirements Meis, R. & Heisel, M. Information   MDPI  
    Abstract: Privacy is a software quality that is closely related to security. The main difference is that security properties aim at the protection of assets that are crucial for the considered system, and privacy aims at the protection of personal data that are processed by the system. The identification of privacy protection needs in complex systems is a hard and error prone task. Stakeholders whose personal data are processed might be overlooked, or the sensitivity and the need of protection of the personal data might be underestimated. The later personal data and the needs to protect them are identified during the development process, the more expensive it is to fix these issues, because the needed changes of the system-to-be often affect many functionalities. In this paper, we present a systematic method to identify the privacy needs of a software system based on a set of functional requirements by extending the problem-based privacy analysis (ProPAn) method. Our method is tool-supported and automated where possible to reduce the effort that has to be spent for the privacy analysis, which is especially important when considering complex systems. The contribution of this paper is a semi-automatic method to identify the relevant privacy requirements for a software-to-be based on its functional requirements. The considered privacy requirements address all dimensions of privacy that are relevant for software development. As our method is solely based on the functional requirements of the system to be, we enable users of our method to identify the privacy protection needs that have to be addressed by the software-to-be at an early stage of the development. As initial evaluation of our method, we show its applicability on a small electronic health system scenario.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Information16,
      year = {2016},
      title = {Computer-Aided Identification and Validation of Privacy Requirements},
      author = {Meis, Rene and Heisel, Maritta},
      journal = {Information},
      publisher = {MDPI},
      volume = {7},
      number = {28},
      url = {http://www.mdpi.com/2078-2489/7/2/28},
      doi = {10.3390/info7020028}
    }
    
    2016 Understanding the Privacy Goal Intervenability Meis, R. & Heisel, M. Trust, Privacy, and Security in Digital Business   Springer  
    Abstract: Privacy is gaining more and more attention in society and hence, gains more importance as a software quality that has to be considered during software development. A privacy goal that has not yet been deeply studied is the empowerment of end-users to have control over how their personal data is processed by information systems. This privacy goal is called intervenability. Several surveys have shown that one of end-users’ main privacy concerns is the lack of intervenability options in information systems. In this paper, we refine the privacy goal intervenability into a software requirements taxonomy and relate it to a taxonomy of transparency requirements because transparency can be regarded as a prerequisite for intervenability. The combined taxonomy of intervenability and transparency requirements shall guide requirements engineers to identify the intervenability requirements relevant for the system they consider. We validated the completeness of our taxonomy by comparing it to the relevant literature that we derived based on a systematic literature review.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{TrustBus16,
      year = {2016},
      title = {Understanding the Privacy Goal Intervenability},
      booktitle = {Trust, Privacy, and Security in Digital Business},
      author = {Meis, Rene and Heisel, Maritta},
      publisher = {Springer},
      volume = {9830},
      series = {LNCS},
      pages = {79--94},
      url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-44341-6_6},
      doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-44341-6_6}
    }
    
    2015 1st Workshop on VAriability for QUalIties in SofTware Architecture (VAQUITA): Workshop Introduction Alebrahim, A., Faßbender, S., Filipczyk, M., Goedicke, M., Heisel, M. & Zdun, U. Proceedings of the 2015 European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops   ACM  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Alebrahim:2015:WVQ:2797433.2797455,
      year = {2015},
      title = {1st Workshop on VAriability for QUalIties in SofTware Architecture (VAQUITA): Workshop Introduction},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2015 European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops},
      author = {Alebrahim, Azadeh and Fa{\ss}bender, Stephan and Filipczyk, Martin and Goedicke, Michael and Heisel, Maritta and Zdun, U.},
      publisher = {ACM},
      series = {ECSAW '15},
      pages = {22:1--22:2},
      url = {https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=2797433.2797455},
      doi = {10.1145/2797433.2797455}
    }
    
    2015 A Problem-, Quality-, and Aspect-Oriented Requirements Engineering Method Faßbender, S., Heisel, M. & Meis, R. Software Technologies - 9th International Joint Conference, ICSOFT 2014, Vienna, Austria, August 29-31, 2014, Revised Selected Papers   Springer  
    Abstract: Requirements engineers not only have to cope with the requirements
    of various stakeholders for complex software systems, they also have
    to consider several software qualities (e.g., performance,
    maintainability, security, and privacy) that the system-to-be shall
    address. In such a situation, it is challenging for requirements engineers to
    develop a complete and coherent set of requirements for the
    system-to-be.
    Separation of concerns has shown to be one option to handle the
    complexity of systems. The problem frames approach address this
    principle by decomposing the problem of building the
    system-to-be into simpler subproblems. Aspect-orientation aims at
    separating cross-cutting functionalities into separate
    functionalities, called aspects.
    We propose a method called AORE4PF, which shows that
    aspect-orientation can be integrated into the problem frames
    approach to increase the separation of concerns and to benefit from
    several methods that exist on problem frames to develop a complete
    and coherent set of requirements. We validated our method with a
    small experiment in the field of crisis management.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{CCIS15a,
      year = {2015},
      title = {A Problem-, Quality-, and Aspect-Oriented Requirements Engineering Method},
      booktitle = {Software Technologies - 9th International Joint Conference, {ICSOFT} 2014, Vienna, Austria, August 29-31, 2014, Revised Selected Papers},
      author = {Fa{\ss}bender, Stephan and Heisel, Maritta and Meis, Rene},
      publisher = {Springer},
      volume = {555},
      series = {Communications in Computer and Information Science},
      pages = {291--310},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-25579-8_17},
      doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-25579-8_17}
    }
    
    2015 Problem-Based Security Requirements Elicitation and Refinement with PresSuRE Faßbender, S., Heisel, M. & Meis, R. Software Technologies - 9th International Joint Conference, ICSOFT 2014, Vienna, Austria, August 29-31, 2014, Revised Selected Papers   Springer  
    Abstract: Recently published reports on cybercrime indicate an ever-increasing number of
    security incidents related to IT systems. Many attacks causing the incidents
    abuse (in)directly one or more security defects.
    Fixing the security defect once fielded is costly. To avoid the defects and the
    subsequent need to fix them, security has to be considered thoroughly when
    developing software. The earliest phase to do so is the requirements
    engineering, in which security threats should be identified early on and treated
    by defining sufficient security requirements.
    In a previous paper, we introduced a methodology for
    Problem-based Security Requirements Elicitation (PresSuRE).
    PresSuRE provides a computer-aided security threat identification. The
    identification is based on the functional requirements for a system-to-be.
    Still, there is a need for guidance on how to derive security requirements once
    the threats are identified. In this work, we provide such guidance extending
    PresSuRE and its tool support. We illustrate and validate our approach using a
    smart grid scenario provided by the industrial partners of the EU project
    NESSoS.
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{CCIS15b,
      year = {2015},
      title = {Problem-Based Security Requirements Elicitation and Refinement with PresSuRE},
      booktitle = {Software Technologies - 9th International Joint Conference, {ICSOFT} 2014, Vienna, Austria, August 29-31, 2014, Revised Selected Papers},
      author = {Fa{\ss}bender, Stephan and Heisel, Maritta and Meis, Rene},
      publisher = {Springer},
      volume = {555},
      series = {Communications in Computer and Information Science},
      pages = {311--330},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-25579-8_18},
      doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-25579-8_18}
    }
    
    2015 Systematic Identification of Information Flows from Requirements to support Privacy Impact Assessments Meis, R. & Heisel, M. ICSOFT-PT 2015 - Proc. of the 10th Int. Conf. on Software Paradigm Trends   SciTePress  
    Abstract: Several countries prescribe or advise government departments and
    organizations to perform a privacy impact assessment (PIA) if these
    prepare new projects or change existing ones that involve personal
    information. A PIA shall summarize what personal information is
    collected, processed, stored, and distributed in the context of the
    project. But there is only little support for undertaking a PIA and
    to create a PIA report, most countries only provide vague guidelines
    and simple templates. We present in this paper an extension of the
    problem-based privacy analysis (ProPAn) method that derives
    information needed to conduct a PIA from a requirements model in
    problem frame notation. We provide a formally specified method with
    well-defined steps and tool support to reduce the effort to be spent
    for eliciting the needed information and to ensure that the needed
    information is as complete and coherent as possible to form an
    adequate basis for the creation of a PIA report.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{ICSOFT15,
      year = {2015},
      title = {Systematic Identification of Information Flows from Requirements to support Privacy Impact Assessments},
      booktitle = {{ICSOFT-PT} 2015 - Proc. of the 10th Int. Conf. on Software Paradigm Trends},
      author = {Meis, Rene and Heisel, Maritta},
      publisher = {SciTePress},
      pages = {43-52},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5220/0005518500430052},
      doi = {10.5220/0005518500430052}
    }
    
    2015 A Taxonomy of Requirements for the Privacy Goal Transparency Meis, R., Heisel, M. & Wirtz, R. Trust, Privacy, and Security in Digital Business   Springer  
    Abstract: Privacy is a growing concern during software
    development. Transparency--in the sense of increasing user's
    privacy-awareness--is a privacy goal that is not as deeply studied
    in the literature as the properties anonymity and unlinkability. To
    be compliant with legislation and standards, requirements engineers
    have to identify the requirements on transparency that are relevant
    for the software to be developed. To assist the identification
    process, we provide a taxonomy of transparency requirements derived
    from legislation and standards. This taxonomy is validated using
    related research which was identified using a systematic literature
    review. Our proposed taxonomy can be used by requirements engineers
    as basis to systematically identify the relevant transparency
    requirements leading to a more complete and coherent set of
    requirements.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{TrustBus2015,
      year = {2015},
      title = {A Taxonomy of Requirements for the Privacy Goal Transparency},
      booktitle = {Trust, Privacy, and Security in Digital Business},
      author = {Meis, Rene and Heisel, Maritta and Wirtz, Roman},
      publisher = {Springer},
      series = {LNCS 9264},
      pages = {195-209},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5220/0005518500430052},
      doi = {10.5220/0005518500430052}
    }
    
    2014 A Problem-based Approach for Computer Aided Privacy Threat Identification Beckers, K., Faßbender, S., Heisel, M. & Meis, R. Privacy Technologies and Policy   Springer  
    Abstract: Recently, there has been an increase of reported privacy threats hitting
    large software systems. These threats can originate from stakeholders that are
    part of the system. Thus, it is crucial for software engineers to identify these
    privacy threats, refine these into privacy requirements, and design solutions that
    mitigate the threats.

    In this paper, we introduce our methodology named Problem-Based Privacy Analysis (ProPAn). The ProPAn method is an approach for identifying privacy threats during the requirements
    analysis of software systems using problem frame models. Our approach does not rely
    entirely on the privacy analyst to detect privacy threats, but allows a computer aided privacy
    threat identification that is derived from the relations between stakeholders, technology, and personal information in the system-to-be.

    To capture the environment of the system, e.g., stakeholders and other IT systems,
    we use problem frames, a requirements engineering approach founded on the modeling
    of a machine (system-to-be) in its environment (e.g. stakeholders, other software). We define a UML profile for privacy requirements and a reasoning technique that
    identifies stakeholders, whose personal information are stored or transmitted in the system-to-be and stakeholders from whom we have to protect this personal information. We illustrate our approach using an eHealth scenario provided by the industrial partners of the EU project NESSoS.

    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{APF2012,
      year = {2014},
      title = {A Problem-based Approach for Computer Aided Privacy Threat Identification},
      booktitle = {Privacy Technologies and Policy},
      author = {Beckers, Kristian and Fa{\ss}bender, Stephan and Heisel, Maritta and Meis, Rene},
      publisher = {Springer},
      volume = {8319},
      series = {LNCS},
      pages = {1-16},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-54069-1_1},
      doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-54069-1_1}
    }
    
    2014 Aspect-oriented Requirements Engineering with Problem Frames Faßbender, S., Heisel, M. & Meis, R. ICSOFT-PT 2014 - Proc. of the 9th Int. Conf. on Software Paradigm Trends   SciTePress  
    Abstract: Nowadays, the requirements of various stakeholders for a system do not only increase the complexity of the system-to-be, but also contain different cross-cutting concerns. In such a situation, requirements engineers are really challenged to master the complexity and to deliver a coherent and complete description of the system-to-be. Hence, they are in need for methods which reduce the complexity, handle functional and quality requirements, check completeness and reveal interactions, and are tool supported to lower the effort. One possible option to handle the complexity of a system-to-be is the separation of concerns. Both, aspect-oriented requirements engineering and the problem frames approach implement this principle. Therefore, we propose a combination of both, the AORE4PF (Aspect-Oriented Requirements Engineering for Problem Frames) method. AORE4PF provides guidance for classifying requirements, separating the different concerns, modeling requirements for documentation and application of completeness and interaction analyses, and weaving the reusable parts to a complete and coherent system. AORE4PF provides tool support for most activities. We exemplify our method using a smart grid case obtained from the NESSoS project. For validation, the results of a small experiment in the field of crisis management systems are presented.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{ICSOFT14Aspects,
      year = {2014},
      title = {Aspect-oriented Requirements Engineering with Problem Frames},
      booktitle = {{ICSOFT-PT} 2014 - Proc. of the 9th Int. Conf. on Software Paradigm Trends},
      author = {Fa{\ss}bender, Stephan and Heisel, Maritta and Meis, Rene},
      publisher = {SciTePress},
      pages = {145-156},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5220/0005001801450156},
      doi = {10.5220/0005001801450156}
    }
    
    2014 Functional Requirements Under Security PresSuRE Faßbender, S., Heisel, M. & Meis, R. ICSOFT-PT 2014 - Proc. of the 9th Int. Conf. on Software Paradigm Trends   SciTePress  
    Abstract: Recently, there has been an increase of reported security incidents hitting
    large software systems. Such incidents can originate from different
    attackers exploiting vulnerabilities of different parts of a system. Hence, there
    is a need for enhancing security considerations in software development.
    It is crucial for requirements engineers to identify security threats
    early on, and to refine the threats into security requirements.
    In this paper, we introduce a methodology for Problem-based Security
    Requirements Elicitation (PresSuRE). PresSuRE is a method for
    identifying security needs during the requirements analysis of
    software systems using a problem frame model. Our method does not rely
    entirely on the requirements engineer to detect security needs, but
    provides a computer-aided security threat identification, and
    subsequently the elicitation of security requirements.
    The identification is based on the functional requirements for a
    system-to-be. We illustrate and validate our approach using a smart grid
    scenario provided by the industrial partners of the EU project NESSoS.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{ICSOFT14Pressure,
      year = {2014},
      title = {Functional Requirements Under Security {PresSuRE}},
      booktitle = {{ICSOFT-PT} 2014 - Proc. of the 9th Int. Conf. on Software Paradigm Trends},
      author = {Fa{\ss}bender, Stephan and Heisel, Maritta and Meis, Rene},
      publisher = {SciTePress},
      pages = {5-16},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5220/0005098600050016},
      doi = {10.5220/0005098600050016}
    }
    
    2014 Enhancing Problem Frames with Trust and Reputation for Analyzing Smart Grid Security Requirements Moyano, F., Fernandez-Gago, C., Beckers, K. & Heisel, M. Proceedings of the Second Open EIT ICT Labs Workshop on Smart Grid Security (SmartGridSec14)   Springer  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{MGBH2014,
      year = {2014},
      title = {Enhancing Problem Frames with Trust and Reputation for Analyzing Smart Grid Security Requirements},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the Second Open EIT ICT Labs Workshop on Smart Grid Security (SmartGridSec14)},
      author = {Moyano, Francisco and Fernandez-Gago, Carmen and Beckers, Kristian and Heisel, Maritta},
      publisher = {Springer},
      series = {LNCS 8448},
      pages = {166 -- 180},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/}
    }
    
    2014 Problem-Based Requirements Interaction Analysis Alebrahim, A., Faßbender, S., Heisel, M. & Meis, R. Proceedings of the International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality (REFSQ)   Springer  
    Abstract: The ability to address the diverse interests of different
    stakeholders in a software project in a coherent way is one
    fundamental software quality. These diverse and maybe conflicting
    interests are reflected by the requirements of each
    stakeholder. Thus, it is likely that aggregated
    requirements for a software system contain interactions. To avoid unwanted
    interactions and improve software quality, we propose a structured
    method consisting of three phases to find such interactions.
    For our method, we use problem diagrams, which
    describe requirements in a structured way. The information represented in the
    problem diagrams is translated into a formal Z model.
    Then we reduce the number of combinations of
    requirements, which might conflict. The reduction of
    requirements interaction candidates is crucial to lower the effort of the in
    depth interaction analysis. For validation of our method, we use a real-life
    example in the domain of smart grid.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{REFSQ2014,
      year = {2014},
      title = {Problem-Based Requirements Interaction Analysis},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality ({REFSQ})},
      author = {Alebrahim, Azadeh and Fa{\ss}bender, Stephan and Heisel, Maritta and Meis, Rene},
      publisher = {Springer},
      series = {LNCS 8396},
      pages = {200--215},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-05843-6_15},
      doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-05843-6_15}
    }
    
    2014 Optimizing functional and quality requirements according to stakeholders' goals Alebrahim, A., Choppy, C., Faßbender, S. & Heisel, M. System Quality and Software Architecture (SQSA)    
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{SQSA2014,
      year = {2014},
      title = {Optimizing functional and quality requirements according to stakeholders' goals},
      booktitle = {System Quality and Software Architecture (SQSA)},
      author = {Alebrahim, Azadeh and Choppy, Christine and Fa{\ss}bender, Stephan and Heisel, Maritta},
      publisher = {Elsevier},
      pages = {75-120}
    }
    
    2014 Privacy-Aware Cloud Deployment Scenario Selection Beckers, K., Faßbender, S., Gritzalis, S., Heisel, M., Kalloniatis, C. & Meis, R. Trust, Privacy, and Security in Digital Business   Springer  
    Abstract: Nowadays, IT-resources are often out-sourced to clouds to reduce
    administration and hardware costs of the own IT
    infrastructure. There are different deployment scenarios for clouds
    that heavily differ in the costs for deployment and maintenance, but
    also in the number of stakeholders involved in the cloud and the
    control over the data in the cloud. These additional stakeholders
    can introduce new privacy threats into a system. Hence, there is a
    trade-off between the reduction of costs and addressing privacy
    concerns introduced by clouds. Our contribution is a structured
    method that assists decision makers in selecting an appropriate
    cloud deployment scenario. Our method is based on the privacy
    requirements of the system-to-be. These are analyzed on basis of the
    functional requirements using the problem-based privacy threat
    analysis (ProPAn). The concept of clouds is integrated into the
    requirements model, which is used by ProPAn to automatically generate
    privacy threat graphs.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{TrustBus2014,
      year = {2014},
      title = {Privacy-Aware Cloud Deployment Scenario Selection},
      booktitle = {Trust, Privacy, and Security in Digital Business},
      author = {Beckers, Kristian and Fa{\ss}bender, Stephan and Gritzalis, Stefanos and Heisel, Maritta and Kalloniatis, Christos and Meis, Rene},
      publisher = {Springer},
      series = {LNCS 8647},
      pages = {94-105},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-09770-1_9},
      doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-09770-1_9}
    }
    
    2013 A Usability Evaluation of the NESSoS Common Body of Knowledge Beckers, K. & Heisel, M. Proceedings of the International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES) - 2nd International Workshop on Security Ontologies and Taxonomies(SecOnT 2013)   IEEE Computer Society  
    Abstract: The common body of knowledge (CBK) of the
    Network of Excellence on Engineering Secure Future Internet
    Software Services and Systems (NESSoS) is a ontology that
    contains knowledge objects (methods, tools, notations, etc.) for
    secure systems engineering. The CBK is intended to support
    one of the main goals of the NESSoS NoE, namely to create a
    long-lasting research community on engineering secure software
    services and systems and to bring together researchers and
    practitioners from security engineering, service computing, and
    software engineering. Hence, the usability of the CBK is of utmost
    importance to stimulate participations in the effort of collecting
    and distributing knowledge about secure systems engineering.
    This paper is devoted to identifying and ameliorating usability
    deficiencies in the initial version of the CBK and its current
    implementation in the SMW+ framework. We report on usability
    tests that we performed on the initial version of the CBK
    and the suggestions for improvement that resulted from the
    usability tests. We also show some exemplary solutions, which we
    already implemented. We discuss our experiences so that other
    researchers can benefit from them.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Beckers2013-ares3,
      year = {2013},
      title = {A Usability Evaluation of the NESSoS Common Body of Knowledge},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security ({ARES}) - 2nd International Workshop on Security Ontologies and Taxonomies(SecOnT 2013)},
      author = {Beckers, Kristian and Heisel, Maritta},
      publisher = {IEEE Computer Society},
      pages = {559-568},
      url = {http://www.ieee.org/}
    }
    
    2012 Supporting Quality-Driven Design Decisions by Modeling Variability Alebrahim, A. & Heisel, M. Proceedings of the International ACM Sigsoft Conference on the Quality of Software Architectures (QoSA)   ACM  
    Abstract: Design decisions should take quality characteristics into account.
    To support such decisions, we capture various solution
    artifacts with different levels of satisfying quality requirements
    as variabilities in the solution space and provide
    them with rationales for selecting suitable variants. We
    present a UML-based approach to modeling variability in
    the problem and the solution space by adopting the notion
    of feature modeling. It provides a mapping of requirements
    variability to design solution variability to be used as a part
    of a general process for generating design alternatives. Our
    approach supports the software engineer in the process of
    decision-making for selecting suitable solution variants, reflecting
    quality concerns, and reasoning about it.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{qosa2012,
      year = {2012},
      title = {Supporting Quality-Driven Design Decisions by Modeling Variability},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the International ACM Sigsoft Conference on the Quality of Software Architectures ({QoSA})},
      author = {Alebrahim, Azadeh and Heisel, Maritta},
      publisher = {ACM},
      pages = {43-48},
      url = {https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2304705}
    }
    
    2012 Deriving Quality-based Architecture Alternatives with Patterns Konersmann, M., Alebrahim, A., Heisel, M., Goedicke, M. & Kersten, B. Software Engineering   GI  
    Abstract: We propose in this paper an iterative method composed of three steps to
    derive architecture alternatives from quality requirements using a catalogue of patterns
    and styles. The solution candidates are chosen by answering a set of questions which
    reflects the requirements. We instantiate then the solution candidates using a UMLbased
    enhancement of the problem frame approach. To ensure that the instantiated
    architectures fulfill the quality requirements, we evaluate them in the next step. A
    desired refinement of the software architectures is then achieved by iterating over the
    described steps.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{SE2012,
      year = {2012},
      title = {Deriving Quality-based Architecture Alternatives with Patterns},
      booktitle = {Software Engineering},
      author = {Konersmann, Marco and Alebrahim, Azadeh and Heisel, Maritta and Goedicke, Michael and Kersten, Benjamin},
      publisher = {GI},
      series = {LNI 198},
      pages = {71--82},
      url = {www.gi.de}
    }
    
    2011 Towards Systematic Integration of Quality Requirements into Software Architecture Alebrahim, A., Hatebur, D. & Heisel, M. Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Software Architecture (ECSA 2011)   Springer  
    Abstract: We present a model- and pattern-based approach that allows
    software engineers to take quality requirements into account right from
    the beginning of the software development process. The approach comprises
    requirements analysis as well as the software architecture design,
    in which quality requirements are re
    ected explicitly.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{AHH2011a,
      year = {2011},
      title = {Towards Systematic Integration of Quality Requirements into Software Architecture},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Software Architecture (ECSA 2011)},
      author = {Alebrahim, Azadeh and Hatebur, Denis and Heisel, Maritta},
      publisher = {Springer},
      series = {LNCS 6903},
      pages = {17--25},
      url = {https://link.springer.com/}
    }
    
    2011 A Method to Derive Software Architectures from Quality Requirements Alebrahim, A., Hatebur, D. & Heisel, M. Proceedings of the 18th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference (APSEC)   IEEE Computer Society  
    Abstract: We present a model- and pattern-based method that allows software engineers to take quality requirements into account right from the beginning of the software development process. The method comprises requirements analysis as well as the derivation of a software architecture from requirements documents, in which quality requirements are reflected explicitly. For requirements analysis, we use an enhancement of the problem frame approach, where software development problems are represented by problem diagrams. The derivation of a software architecture starts from a set of problem diagrams, annotated with functional as well as quality requirements. First, we set up an initial software architecture, taking into account the decomposition of the overall software development problem into subproblems. Then, we incorporate quality requirements into that architecture by using security or performance patterns or mechanisms. The method is toolsupported, which allows developers to check semantic integrity conditions in the different models
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{AHH2011b,
      year = {2011},
      title = {A Method to Derive Software Architectures from Quality Requirements},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 18th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference ({APSEC})},
      author = {Alebrahim, Azadeh and Hatebur, Denis and Heisel, Maritta},
      publisher = {IEEE Computer Society},
      pages = {322--330},
      url = {https://www.ieee.org/}
    }
    
    2011 Towards Systematic Integration of Performance and Security Requirements into Software Architecture Alebrahim, A., Hatebur, D. & Heisel, M. Software Architecture   Springer Berlin Heidelberg  
    Abstract: We present a model- and pattern-based method that allows
    software engineers to take quality requirements into account
    right from the beginning of the software development process.
    The method comprises requirements analysis as well as
    the derivation of a software architecture from requirements
    documents. In that architecture, quality requirements are
    reflected explicitly.
    For requirements analysis, we use an enhancement of the
    problem frame approach [14], where software development
    problems are represented by problem diagrams. In our enhanced
    version of the problem frame approach, we use UML
    notation, and we have added the possibility to complement
    functional requirements with quality requirements, such as
    security or performance requirements.
    The derivation of a software architecture starts from a
    set of problem diagrams, annotated with functional as well
    as quality requirements. First, we set up an initial software
    architecture, taking into account the decomposition of
    the overall software development problem into subproblems.
    Next, we incorporate quality requirements into that architecture
    by using security or performance patterns or mechanisms.
    To obtain the final architecture, (functional) design
    patterns are applied. The method is tool-supported, which
    allows developers to check semantic integrity conditions in
    the different models.
    BibTeX:
    @proceedings{,
      year = {2011},
      title = {Towards Systematic Integration of Performance and Security Requirements into Software Architecture},
      booktitle = {Software Architecture},
      author = {Alebrahim, Azadeh and Hatebur, Denis and Heisel, Maritta},
      publisher = {Springer Berlin Heidelberg},
      url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-642-23798-0_2},
      doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-23798-0_2}
    }
    

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