# Maritta Heisel

Prof. Dr. Maritta Heisel
Raum BB 919
Tel. : +49 203 379 3465
Fax : +49 379 4490
E-Mail : maritta.heisel[at]uni-duisburg-essen.de

Research
• Compliance [VerÃ¶ffentlichungen]
• Formal Methods [VerÃ¶ffentlichungen]
• Methodology [VerÃ¶ffentlichungen]
• Patterns [VerÃ¶ffentlichungen]
• Privacy [VerÃ¶ffentlichungen]
• Requirements Engineering [VerÃ¶ffentlichungen]
• Safety [VerÃ¶ffentlichungen]
• Security
VerÃ¶ffentlichungen:

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YearTitleAuthorJournal/ProceedingsPublisher
2017 Performing a More Realistic Safety Analysis by Means of the Six-Variable Model Ulfat-Bunyadi, N., Hatebur, D. & Heisel, M. Automotive - Safety & Security 2017   GI
Abstract: Safety analysis typically consists of hazard analysis and risk assessment (HARA) as well as fault tree analysis (FTA). During the first, possible hazardous events are identified. During the latter, failure events that can lead to a hazardous event are identified. Usually, the focus of FTA is on identifying failure events within the system. However, a hazardous event may also occur due to invalid assumptions about the systemâ€™s environment. If the possibility that environmental assumptions turn invalid is considered during safety analysis, a more realistic and complete safety analysis is performed than without considering them. Yet, a major challenge consists in eliciting first the â€˜realâ€™ environmental assumptions. Developers do not always document assumptions, and often they are not aware of the assumptions they make. In previous work, we defined the Six-Variable Model which provides support in making the â€˜realâ€™ environmental assumptions explicit. In this paper, we define a safety analysis method based on the Six-Variable Model. The benefit of our method is that we make the environmental assumptions explicit and consider them in safety analysis. In this way, assumptions that are too strong and too risky can be identified and weakened or abandoned if necessary.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{UHH-ASS2017,
year = {2017},
title = {Performing a More Realistic Safety Analysis by Means of the Six-Variable Model},
booktitle = {Automotive - Safety \& Security 2017},
author = {Ulfat-Bunyadi, Nelufar and Hatebur, Denis and Heisel, Maritta},
publisher = {GI},
volume = {P-269},
series = {Lecture Notes in Informatics},
pages = {135-148},
url = {https://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/152}
}

2015 Problem-Based Security Requirements Elicitation and Refinement with PresSuRE Faßbender, S., Heisel, M. & Meis, R. Software Technologies - 9th International Joint Conference, ICSOFT 2014, Vienna, Austria, August 29-31, 2014, Revised Selected Papers   Springer
Abstract: Recently published reports on cybercrime indicate an ever-increasing number of
security incidents related to IT systems. Many attacks causing the incidents
abuse (in)directly one or more security defects.
Fixing the security defect once fielded is costly. To avoid the defects and the
subsequent need to fix them, security has to be considered thoroughly when
developing software. The earliest phase to do so is the requirements
engineering, in which security threats should be identified early on and treated
by defining sufficient security requirements.
In a previous paper, we introduced a methodology for
Problem-based Security Requirements Elicitation (PresSuRE).
PresSuRE provides a computer-aided security threat identification. The
identification is based on the functional requirements for a system-to-be.
Still, there is a need for guidance on how to derive security requirements once
the threats are identified. In this work, we provide such guidance extending
PresSuRE and its tool support. We illustrate and validate our approach using a
smart grid scenario provided by the industrial partners of the EU project
NESSoS.
BibTeX:
@incollection{CCIS15b,
year = {2015},
title = {Problem-Based Security Requirements Elicitation and Refinement with PresSuRE},
booktitle = {Software Technologies - 9th International Joint Conference, {ICSOFT} 2014, Vienna, Austria, August 29-31, 2014, Revised Selected Papers},
author = {Fa{\ss}bender, Stephan and Heisel, Maritta and Meis, Rene},
publisher = {Springer},
volume = {555},
series = {Communications in Computer and Information Science},
pages = {311--330},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-25579-8_18},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-25579-8_18}
}

2014 Towards Developing Secure Software using Problem-oriented Security Patterns Alebrahim, A. & Heisel, M. Proceedings of the 6th International Cross-Domain Conference on Availability, Reliability, and Security in Information Systems and HCI (CD-ARES)   Springer
Abstract: Security as one essential quality requirement has to be addressed during
the software development process. Quality requirements such as security
drive the architecture of a software, while design decisions such as security patterns
on the architecture level in turn might constrain the achievement of quality
requirements significantly. Thus, to obtain sound architectures and correct requirements,
knowledge which is gained in the solution space, for example from
security patterns, should be reflected in the requirements engineering. In this paper,
we propose an iterative method that takes into account the concurrent development
of requirements and architecture descriptions systematically. It reuses
security patterns for refining and restructuring the requirement models by applying
problem-oriented security patterns. Problem-oriented security patterns adapt
existing security patterns in a way that they can be used in the problem-oriented
requirements engineering. The proposed method bridges the gap between security
problems and security architectural solutions.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Alebrahim-cdares2014,
year = {2014},
title = {Towards Developing Secure Software using Problem-oriented Security Patterns},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 6th International Cross-Domain Conference on Availability, Reliability, and Security in Information Systems and HCI (CD-ARES)},
author = {Alebrahim, Azadeh and Heisel, Maritta},
publisher = {Springer},
series = {LNCS 8708},
pages = {45-62},
url = {https://link.springer.com/}
}

2014 Problem-oriented Security Patterns for Requirements Engineering Alebrahim, A. & Heisel, M. Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Pattern Languages of Programs (EuroPLoP)   ACM
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Alebrahim-europlop2014,
year = {2014},
title = {Problem-oriented Security Patterns for Requirements Engineering},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Pattern Languages of Programs (EuroPLoP)},
author = {Alebrahim, Azadeh and Heisel, Maritta},
publisher = {ACM},
note = {Accepted},
url = {https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2721963}
}

2014 A Structured Method for Security Requirements Elicitation concerning the Cloud Computing Domain Beckers, K., Côté, I., Goeke, L., Güler, S. & Heisel, M. International Journal of Secure Software Engineering (IJSSE) - Special Issue on 7th International Workshop on Secure Software Engineering (SecSE 2013)   IGI Global
Abstract: Cloud computing systems offer an attractive alternative to traditional IT-systems, because of economic benefits that arise from the cloud's scalable and flexible IT-resources. The benefits are of particular interest for SME's. The reason is that using Cloud Resources allows an SME to focus on its core business rather than on IT-resources. However, numerous concerns about the security of cloud computing services exist. Potential cloud customers have to be confident that the cloud services they acquire are secure for them to use. Therefore, they have to have a clear set of security requirements covering their security needs. Eliciting these requirements is a difficult task, because of the amount of stakeholders and technical components to consider in a cloud environment. Therefore, the authors propose a structured, pattern-based method supporting eliciting security requirements and selecting security measures. The method guides potential cloud customers to model the application of their business case in a cloud computing context using a pattern-based approach. Thus, a potential cloud customer can instantiate our so-called Cloud System Analysis Pattern. Then, the information of the instantiated pattern can be used to fill-out our textual security requirements patterns and individual defined security requirement patterns, as well. The presented method is tool-supported. Our tool supports the instantiation of the cloud system analysis pattern and automatically transfers the information from the instance to the security requirements patterns. In addition, they have validation conditions that check e.g., if a security requirement refers to at least one element in the cloud. The authors illustrate their method using an online-banking system as running example.
BibTeX:
@article{Beckers2014-IJIS,
year = {2014},
title = {A Structured Method for Security Requirements Elicitation concerning the Cloud Computing Domain},
author = {Beckers, Kristian and C{\^{o}}t{\'{e}}, Isabelle and Goeke, Ludger and G{\"{u}}ler, Selim and Heisel, Maritta},
journal = {International Journal of Secure Software Engineering (IJSSE) - Special Issue on 7th International Workshop on Secure Software Engineering (SecSE 2013)},
publisher = {IGI Global},
volume = {5},
number = {2},
pages = {19 -- 41},
url = {http://www.igi-global.com}
}

2014 Supporting Common Criteria Security Analysis with Problem Frames Beckers, K., Hatebur, D. & Heisel, M. Journal of Wireless Mobile Networks, Ubiquitous Computing, and Dependable Applications (JoWUA)   Innovative Information Science & Technology Research Group (ISYOU)
Abstract: Security standards, e.g., the Common Criteria (ISO 15408), are applied by software
vendors to establish a level of confidence that the security functionality of their products
and their applied assurance measures are sufficient. To get a Common Criteria certification,
a comprehensible set of documents is necessary, including a detailed threat analysis and
security objective elicitation. We focus on improving the Common Criteria threat analysis
and the derivation of security objectives in our work.
Our method is based upon an attacker model, which considers different attacker types,
e.g., software attackers, that threaten only specific parts of a system. We provide tool
support for checking the consistency and the completeness of the specified software systems
using OCL expressions. For example, we check if all types of attackers have been considered
for a specific domain, we check for all software domains that either a software attacker is
considered or an assumption is documented that excludes software attackers, and we check
if all threats are addressed by security objectives. Moreover, we can generate tables and
texts from our UML models to satisfy the Common Criteria documentation demands. For
instance, we can generate Common Criteria specific cross-table, which maps every security
objective and assumption to a specific threat. The consistency checks are integrated in our
structured method for threat analysis that considers the Common Criteriaâ€™s (CC) demands
for documentation of the system in its environment and the reasoning that all threats are
discovered and addressed. With our support tool UML4PF (that extends a UML tool and
contains e.g., a UML profile and an OCL validator), we support security reasoning, validation
of models, and we are able to generate Common Criteria-compliant documentation using
model-to-text transformations. Our threat analysis method can also be used for threat
analysis without the common criteria, because it uses a specific part of the UML profile that
can be adapted to other demands with little effort. For example, it could be adapted for
other security standards like ISO 27001.We illustrate our approach with the development of
a smart metering gateway system.
BibTeX:
@article{Beckers2014-Jowua,
year = {2014},
title = {Supporting Common Criteria Security Analysis with Problem Frames},
author = {Beckers, Kristian and Hatebur, Denis and Heisel, Maritta},
journal = {Journal of Wireless Mobile Networks, Ubiquitous Computing, and Dependable Applications (JoWUA)},
publisher = {Innovative Information Science \& Technology Research Group (ISYOU)},
volume = {5},
number = {1},
pages = {37-63},
url = {http://isyou.info/}
}

2014 A Threat Analysis Methodology for Smart Home Scenarios Beckers, K., Faßbender, S., Heisel, M. & Suppan, S. Smart Grid Security, Proceddings of the Second International Workshop (SmartGridSec)   Springer
Abstract: A smart grid is envisioned to enable a more economic, environmen-
tal friendly, sustainable and reliable supply of energy. But significant security
concerns have to be addressed for the smart grid, dangers range from threatened
availability of energy, to threats of customer privacy. This paper presents a struc-
tured method for identifying security threats in the smart home scenario and in
particular for analyzing their severity and relevance. The method is able to unveil
also new threats, not discussed in the literature before. The smart home scenario
is represented by a context-pattern, which is a specific kind of pattern for the elic-
itation of domain knowledge [5]. Hence, by exchanging the smart home pattern
by a context-pattern for another domain, e.g., clouds, our method can be used
for these other domains, as well. The proposal is based on Microsoftâ€™s Security
Development Lifecycle (SDL) [4], which uses Data Flow diagrams, but proposes
new alternatives for scenario definition and asset identification based on context-
patterns. These alleviate the lack of scalability of the SDL. In addition, we present
Attack Path DFDs, that show how an attacker can compromise the system.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BFassbenderHS2014,
year = {2014},
title = {A Threat Analysis Methodology for Smart Home Scenarios},
booktitle = {Smart Grid Security, Proceddings of the Second International Workshop (SmartGridSec)},
author = {Beckers, Kristian and Fa{\ss}bender, Stephan and Heisel, Maritta and Suppan, Santiago},
publisher = {Springer},
volume = {8448},
series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
pages = {94-124},
url = {http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-10329-7_7},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-10329-7_7}
}

2014 Considering Attacker Motivation in Attack Graphs Analysis in a Smart Grid Scenario Beckers, K., Heisel, M., Krautsevich, L., Martinelli, F. & Yautsiukhin, A. Proceedings of the Second Open EIT ICT Labs Workshop on Smart Grid Security (SmartGridSec14)   Springer Berlin Heidelberg
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BHKMY2014,
year = {2014},
title = {{C}onsidering {A}ttacker {M}otivation in {A}ttack {G}raphs {A}nalysis in a {S}mart {G}rid {S}cenario},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the Second Open EIT ICT Labs Workshop on Smart Grid Security (SmartGridSec14)},
author = {Beckers, Kristian and Heisel, Maritta and Krautsevich, Leanid and Martinelli, Fabio and Yautsiukhin, Artsiom},
publisher = {Springer Berlin Heidelberg},
series = {LNCS 8448},
pages = {Pages 30-47},
url = {http://www.springerlink.com/}
}

2014 ISMS-CORAS: A Structured Method for Establishing an ISO 27001 Compliant Information Security Management System Beckers, K., Heisel, M., Solhaug, B. & Stølen, K. Advances in Engineering Secure Future Internet Services and Systems   Springer
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BHSS2014,
year = {2014},
title = {ISMS-CORAS: A Structured Method for Establishing an ISO 27001 Compliant Information Security Management System},
booktitle = {Advances in Engineering Secure Future Internet Services and Systems},
author = {Beckers, Kristian and Heisel, Maritta and Solhaug, Bj{\o}rnar and St{\o}len, Ketil},
publisher = {Springer},
number = {8431},
series = {LNCS State-of-the-Art Surveys},
pages = {315-344},
url = {https://link.springer.com/}
}

2014 Functional Requirements Under Security PresSuRE Faßbender, S., Heisel, M. & Meis, R. ICSOFT-PT 2014 - Proc. of the 9th Int. Conf. on Software Paradigm Trends   SciTePress
Abstract: Recently, there has been an increase of reported security incidents hitting
large software systems. Such incidents can originate from different
attackers exploiting vulnerabilities of different parts of a system. Hence, there
is a need for enhancing security considerations in software development.
It is crucial for requirements engineers to identify security threats
early on, and to refine the threats into security requirements.
In this paper, we introduce a methodology for Problem-based Security
Requirements Elicitation (PresSuRE). PresSuRE is a method for
identifying security needs during the requirements analysis of
software systems using a problem frame model. Our method does not rely
entirely on the requirements engineer to detect security needs, but
provides a computer-aided security threat identification, and
subsequently the elicitation of security requirements.
The identification is based on the functional requirements for a
system-to-be. We illustrate and validate our approach using a smart grid
scenario provided by the industrial partners of the EU project NESSoS.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{ICSOFT14Pressure,
year = {2014},
title = {Functional Requirements Under Security {PresSuRE}},
booktitle = {{ICSOFT-PT} 2014 - Proc. of the 9th Int. Conf. on Software Paradigm Trends},
author = {Fa{\ss}bender, Stephan and Heisel, Maritta and Meis, Rene},
publisher = {SciTePress},
pages = {5-16},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5220/0005098600050016},
doi = {10.5220/0005098600050016}
}

2014 A Structured Comparison of Security Standards Beckers, K., Côté, I., Fenz, S., Hatebur, D. & Heisel, M. Advances in Engineering Secure Future Internet Services and Systems   Springer
Abstract: A number of di erent security standards exist and it is dif-
cult to choose the right one for a particular project or to evaluate if
the right standard was chosen for a certi cation. These standards are
often long and complex texts, whose reading and understanding takes
up a lot of time. We provide a conceptual model for security standards
that relies upon existing research and contains concepts and phases of
security standards. In addition, we developed a template based upon
this model, which can be instantiated for given security standard. These
instantiated templates can be compared and help software and security
engineers to understand the di erences of security standards. In particular,
the instantiated templates explain which information and what
level of detail a system document according to a certain security standard
contains. We applied our method to the well known international
security standards ISO 27001 and Common Criteria, and the German
IT-Grundschutz standards, as well.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Lopez2014,
year = {2014},
title = {A Structured Comparison of Security Standards},
booktitle = {Advances in Engineering Secure Future Internet Services and Systems},
author = {Beckers, Kristian and C{\^{o}}t{\'{e}}, Isabelle and Fenz, Stefan and Hatebur, Denis and Heisel, Maritta},
publisher = {Springer},
number = {8431},
series = {LNCS State-of-the-Art Surveys},
pages = {1-34},
url = {http://www.springerlink.com/}
}

2014 Enhancing Problem Frames with Trust and Reputation for Analyzing Smart Grid Security Requirements Moyano, F., Fernandez-Gago, C., Beckers, K. & Heisel, M. Proceedings of the Second Open EIT ICT Labs Workshop on Smart Grid Security (SmartGridSec14)   Springer
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{MGBH2014,
year = {2014},
title = {Enhancing Problem Frames with Trust and Reputation for Analyzing Smart Grid Security Requirements},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the Second Open EIT ICT Labs Workshop on Smart Grid Security (SmartGridSec14)},
author = {Moyano, Francisco and Fernandez-Gago, Carmen and Beckers, Kristian and Heisel, Maritta},
publisher = {Springer},
series = {LNCS 8448},
pages = {166 -- 180},
url = {http://www.springerlink.com/}
}

2014 Determining the Probability of Smart Grid Attacks by Combining Attack Tree and Attack Graph Analysis Beckers, K., Heisel, M., Krautsevich, L., Martinelli, F., Meis, R. & Yautsiukhin, A. Smart Grid Security - Second International Workshop, SmartGridSec 2014, Munich, Germany, February 26, 2014, Revised Selected Papers   Springer
Abstract: Smart grid is an intelligent energy distribution system consisting of multiple information and communication technologies (ICT). One of the challenges for such complex and heterogeneous system as smart grid is to unite security analysis on a high level of abstraction and concrete behavioral attack patterns that exploit low-level vulnerabilities. We provide a structured method that combines the Si* language, which can express attacker motivations as a goal hierarchy, and vulnerability specific attack graphs, which shows every step available for an attacker. We derive system specific information from the low-level representation of the system for a high-level probabilistic analysis.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SmartGridSec14,
year = {2014},
title = {Determining the Probability of Smart Grid Attacks by Combining Attack Tree and Attack Graph Analysis},
booktitle = {Smart Grid Security - Second International Workshop, SmartGridSec 2014, Munich, Germany, February 26, 2014, Revised Selected Papers},
author = {Beckers, Kristian and Heisel, Maritta and Krautsevich, Leanid and Martinelli, Fabio and Meis, Rene and Yautsiukhin, Artisom},
publisher = {Springer},
series = {LNCS 8448},
pages = {30--47},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-10329-7_3},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-10329-7_3}
}

2013 A Problem-based Threat Analysis in compliance with Common Criteria Beckers, K., Hatebur, D. & Heisel, M. Proceedings of the International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES)   IEEE Computer Society
Abstract: In order to gain their customersâ€™ trust, software vendors
can certify their products according to security standards,
e.g., the Common Criteria (ISO 15408). A Common Criteria
certification requires a comprehensible documentation of the
software product, including a detailed threat analysis. In our
work, we focus on improving that threat analysis. Our method
is based upon an attacker model, which considers attacker types
like software attacker that threaten only specific parts of a
system. We use OCL expressions to check if all attackers for a
specific domain have been considered. For example, we propose
a computer-aided method that checks if all software systems
have either considered a software attacker or documented an
assumption that excludes software attackers.
Hence, we propose a structured method for threat analysis that
considers the Common Criteriaâ€™s (CC) demands for documentation
of the system in its environment and the reasoning that
all threats are discovered. We use UML4PF, a UML profile and
support tool for Jacksonâ€™s problem frame method and OCL for
supporting security reasoning, validation of models, and also to
generate Common Criteria-compliant documentation. Our threat
analysis method can also be used for threat analysis without the
common criteria, because it uses a specific part of the UML
profile that can be adapted to other demands with little effort.
We illustrate our approach with the development of a smart
metering gateway system.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Beckers2013-ares1,
year = {2013},
title = {A Problem-based Threat Analysis in compliance with Common Criteria},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security ({ARES})},
author = {Beckers, Kristian and Hatebur, Denis and Heisel, Maritta},
publisher = {IEEE Computer Society},
pages = {111-120},
url = {http://www.ieee.org/}
}

2013 A pattern-based method for establishing a cloud-specific information security management system Beckers, K., Côté, I., Faßbender, S., Heisel, M. & Hofbauer, S. Requirements Engineering   Springer-Verlag
Abstract: Assembling an information security management
system (ISMS) according to the ISO 27001 standard
is difficult, because the standard provides only very sparse
support for system development and documentation.
Assembling an ISMS consists of several difficult tasks,
e.g., asset identification, threat and risk analysis and
security reasoning. Moreover, the standard demands consideration
of laws and regulations, as well as privacy
concerns. These demands present multi-disciplinary challenges
for security engineers. Cloud computing provides
scalable IT resources and the challenges of establishing an
ISMS increases, because of the significant number of
stakeholders and technologies involved and the distribution
of clouds among many countries. We analyzed the ISO
27001 demands for these multi-disciplinary challenges and
cloud computing systems. Based on these insights, we
provide a method that relies upon existing requirements
engineering methods and patterns for several security tasks,
e.g., context descriptions, threat analysis and policy definition.
These can ease the effort of establishing an ISMS
and can produce the necessary documentation for an ISO
27001 compliant ISMS. We illustrate our approach using
the example of an online bank.
BibTeX:
@article{Beckers2013rohtua,
year = {2013},
title = {A pattern-based method for establishing a cloud-specific information security management system},
author = {Beckers, Kristian and C{\^{o}}t{\'{e}}, Isabelle and Fa{\ss}bender, Stephan and Heisel, Maritta and Hofbauer, Stefan},
journal = {Requirements Engineering},
publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
pages = {1-53},
url = {http://www.springerlink.com/}
}

2013 Common Criteria CompliAnt Software Development (CC-CASD) Beckers, K., Faßbender, S., Hatebur, D., Heisel, M. & Côté, I. Proceedings of the 28th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC)   ACM
Abstract: In order to gain their customersâ€™ trust, software vendors can certify
their products according to security standards, e.g., the Common
Criteria (ISO 15408). However, a Common Criteria certification
requires a comprehensible documentation of the software product.
The creation of this documentation results in high costs in terms of
time and money.
We propose a software development process that supports the
creation of the required documentation for a Common Criteria certification.
Hence, we do not need to create the documentation after
the software is built. Furthermore, we propose to use an enhanced
version of the requirements-driven software engineering process
called ADIT to discover possible problems with the establishment
of Common Criteria documents. We aim to detect these issues before
the certification process. Thus, we avoid expensive delays of
the certification effort. ADIT provides a seamless development approach
that allows consistency checks between different kinds of
UML models. ADIT also supports traceability from security requirements
to design documents. We illustrate our approach with
the development of a smart metering gateway system.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SAC2013,
year = {2013},
title = {{Common Criteria CompliAnt Software Development (CC-CASD)}},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 28th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC)},
author = {Beckers, Kristian and Fa{\ss}bender, Stephan and Hatebur, Denis and Heisel, Maritta and C{\^{o}}t{\'{e}}, Isabelle},
publisher = {ACM},
pages = {1298--1304},
url = {https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2480604}
}

2012 Ontology-Based Identification of Research Gaps and Immature Research Areas Beckers, K., Eicker, S., Faßbender, S., Heisel, M., Schmidt, H. & Schwittek, W. Proceedings of the International Cross Domain Conference and Workshop (CD-ARES 2012)   Springer
Abstract: Researchers often have to understand new knowledge areas, and identify
research gaps and immature areas in them. They have to understand and
link numerous publications to achieve this goal. This is difficult, because natural
language has to be analyzed in the publications, and implicit relations between
them have to be discovered. We propose to utilize the structuring possibilities of
ontologies to make the relations between publications, knowledge objects (e.g.,
methods, tools, notations), and knowledge areas explicit. Furthermore, we use
Kitchenhamâ€™s work on structured literature reviews and apply it to the ontology.
We formalize relations between objects in the ontology using Coddâ€™s relational
algebra to support different kinds of literature research. These formal expressions
are implemented as ontology queries. Thus, we implement an immature research
area analysis and research gap identification mechanism. The ontology and its
relations are implemented based on the Semantic MediaWiki+ platform.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Beckers2012-ares1,
year = {2012},
title = {Ontology-Based Identification of Research Gaps and Immature Research Areas},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Cross Domain Conference and Workshop (CD-ARES 2012)},
author = {Beckers, Kristian and Eicker, Stefan and Fa{\ss}bender, Stephan and Heisel, Maritta and Schmidt, Holger and Schwittek, Widura},
publisher = {Springer},
series = {LNCS 7465},
pages = {93-107},
url = {http://www.springerlink.com/}
}

2012 Using Security Requirements Engineering Approaches to Support ISO 27001 Information Security Management Systems Development and Documentation Beckers, K., Heisel, M., Faßbender, S. & Schmidt, H. Proceedings of the International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES)   IEEE Computer Society
Abstract: An ISO 27001 compliant information security
management system is difficult to create, due to the the limited
support for system development and documentation provided
in the standard.
We present a structured analysis of the documentation
and development requirements in the ISO 27001 standard.
Moreover, we investigate to what extent existing security
requirements engineering approaches fulfill these requirements.
We developed relations between these approaches and the
ISO 27001 standard using a conceptual framework originally
developed for comparing security requirements engineering
methods. The relations include comparisons of important
terms, techniques, and documentation artifacts. In addition,
we show practical applications of our results.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Beckers2012-ares4,
year = {2012},
title = {Using Security Requirements Engineering Approaches to Support ISO 27001 Information Security Management Systems Development and Documentation},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security ({ARES})},
author = {Beckers, Kristian and Heisel, Maritta and Fa{\ss}bender, Stephan and Schmidt, Holger},
publisher = {IEEE Computer Society},
pages = {243-248},
url = {http://www.ieee.org/}
}

2012 A Common Body of Knowledge for Engineering Secure Software and Services Schwittek, W., Schmidt, H., Beckers, K., Eicker, S., Faßbender, S. & Heisel, M. Proceedings of the International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES) - 1st International Workshop on Security Ontologies and Taxonomies (SecOnT 2012)   IEEE Computer Society
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Beckers2012-ares7,
year = {2012},
title = {A Common Body of Knowledge for Engineering Secure Software and Services},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security ({ARES}) - 1st International Workshop on Security Ontologies and Taxonomies (SecOnT 2012)},
author = {Schwittek, Widura and Schmidt, Holger and Beckers, Kristian and Eicker, Stefan and Fa{\ss}bender, Stephan and Heisel, Maritta},
publisher = {IEEE Computer Society},
pages = {499-506},
url = {http://www.ieee.org/}
}

2012 An Aspect-Oriented Approach to Relating Security Requirements and Access Control Alebrahim, A., Tun, T. T., Yu, Y., Heisel, M. & Nuseibeh, B. Proceedings of the CAiSE Forum   CEUR-WS.org
Abstract: Affecting multiple parts in software systems, security requirements often tangle with functional requirements. In order to separate crosscutting concerns and increase modularity, we propose to represent security requirements as aspects that can be woven into functional requirements. Using problem frames to model the functional requirements, weaving is achieved by composing the modules representing security aspects with the requirement models. Moreover, we provide guidance on how such security aspects are structured to implement a particular access control solution. As a result, such security aspects become reusable solution patterns to refne the structure of security-related problem.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{CAiSEForum2012,
year = {2012},
title = {An Aspect-Oriented Approach to Relating Security Requirements and Access Control},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the CAiSE Forum},
author = {Alebrahim, Azadeh and Tun, Thein Than and Yu, Yijun and Heisel, Maritta and Nuseibeh, Bashar},
publisher = {CEUR-WS.org},
volume = {855},
series = {CEUR Workshop Proceedings},
pages = {15--22},
url = {http://ceur-ws.org/}
}

2012 Supporting the Development and Documentation of ISO 27001 Information Security Management Systems Through Security Requirements Engineering Approaches Beckers, K., Faßbender, S., Heisel, M., Küster, J.-C. & Schmidt, H. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Engineering Secure Software and Systems (ESSoS)   Springer
Abstract: Assembling an information security management system according
to the ISO 27001 standard is difficult, because the standard provides
only sparse support for system development and documentation.
We analyse the ISO 27001 standard to determine what techniques and
documentation are necessary and instrumental to develop and document
systems according to this standard. Based on these insights, we inspect a
number of current security requirements engineering approaches to evaluate
whether and to what extent these approaches support ISO 27001
system development and documentation. We re-use a conceptual framework
originally developed for comparing security requirements engineering
methods to relate important terms, techniques, and documentation
artifacts of the security requirements engineering methods to the ISO
27001.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{essos2012,
year = {2012},
title = {Supporting the Development and Documentation of {ISO} 27001 Information Security Management Systems Through Security Requirements Engineering Approaches},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Symposium on Engineering Secure Software and Systems ({ESSoS})},
author = {Beckers, Kristian and Fa{\ss}bender, Stephan and Heisel, Maritta and K{\"{u}}ster, Jan-Christoph and Schmidt, Holger},
publisher = {Springer},
series = {LNCS 7159},
url = {https://link.springer.com/}
}

2011 Systematic Development of UMLsec Design Models Based On Security Requirements Hatebur, D., Heisel, M., Jürjens, J. & Schmidt, H. Proceedings of the European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software (ETAPS) - Fundamental Approaches to Software Engineering (FASE)   Springer
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HHJ+2011,
year = {2011},
title = {Systematic Development of {UMLsec} Design Models Based On Security Requirements},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software (ETAPS) - Fundamental Approaches to Software Engineering ({FASE})},
author = {Hatebur, Denis and Heisel, Maritta and J{\"{u}}rjens, Jan and Schmidt, Holger},
publisher = {Springer},
series = {LNCS 6603},
pages = {232--246},
url = {https://link.springer.com/}
}

2011 A Pattern- and Component-Based Method to Develop Secure Software Schmidt, H., Hatebur, D. & Heisel, M. Software Engineering for Secure Systems: Academic and Industrial Perspectives   IGI Global
Abstract: We present a security engineering process based on security problem frames and concretized
security problem frames. Both kinds of frames constitute patterns for analyzing security problems
and associated solution approaches. They are arranged in a pattern system that makes
dependencies between them explicit. We describe step-by-step how the pattern system can be
used to analyze a given security problem and how solution approaches can be found.
Afterwards, the security problems and the solution approaches are formally modeled in detail.
The formal models serve to prove that the solution approaches are correct solutions to the security
problems. Furthermore, the formal models of the solution approaches constitute a formal
specification of the software to be developed.
Then, the specification is implemented by generic security components and generic security
architectures, which constitute architectural patterns. Finally, the generic security components
and the generic security architecture that composes them are refined and the result is a secure
software product built from existing and/or tailor-made security components.
KEYWORDS
security
BibTeX:
@incollection{SHH2011,
year = {2011},
title = {A Pattern- and Component-Based Method to Develop Secure Software},
booktitle = {Software Engineering for Secure Systems: Academic and Industrial Perspectives},
author = {Schmidt, Holger and Hatebur, Denis and Heisel, Maritta},
publisher = {IGI Global},
pages = {32--74},
url = {http://www.igi-global.com/}
}

2010 A Comparison of Security Requirements Engineering Methods Fabian, B., Gürses, S., Heisel, M., Santen, T. & Schmidt, H. Requirements Engineering -- Special Issue on Security Requirements Engineering
Abstract: This paper presents a conceptual framework for
security engineering, with a strong focus on security
requirements elicitation and analysis. This conceptual
framework establishes a clear-cut vocabulary and makes
explicit the interrelations between the different concepts and
notions used in security engineering. Further, we apply our
conceptual framework to compare and evaluate current
security requirements engineering approaches, such as the
Common Criteria, Secure Tropos, SREP, MSRA, as well as
methods based on UML and problem frames. We review
these methods and assess them according to different criteria,
such as the general approach and scope of the method, its
validation, and quality assurance capabilities. Finally, we
discuss how these methods are related to the conceptual
framework and to one another.
BibTeX:
@article{FGH+2010,
year = {2010},
title = {A Comparison of Security Requirements Engineering Methods},
author = {Fabian, Benjamin and G{\"{u}}rses, Seda and Heisel, Maritta and Santen, Thomas and Schmidt, Holger},
journal = {Requirements Engineering -- Special Issue on Security Requirements Engineering},
volume = {15},
number = {1},
pages = {7--40}
}

2010 A UML Profile for Requirements Analysis of Dependable Software Hatebur, D. & Heisel, M. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security (SAFECOMP)   Springer
Abstract: At Safecomp 2009, we presented a foundation for requirements analysis
of dependable software. We defined a set of patterns for expressing and analyzing
dependability requirements, such as confidentiality, integrity, availability,
and reliability. The patterns take into account random faults as well as certain
attacks and therefore support a combined safety and security engineering.
In this paper, we demonstrate how the application of our patterns can be tool supported.
We present a UML profile allowing us to express the different dependability
requirements using UML diagrams. Integrity conditions are expressed using
OCL. We provide tool support based on the Eclipse development environment,
extended with an EMF-based UML tool, e.g., Papyrus UML. We illustrate how
to use the profile to model dependability requirements of a cooperative adaptive
cruise control system.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HateburHeisel2010b,
year = {2010},
title = {A {UML} Profile for Requirements Analysis of Dependable Software},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security (SAFECOMP)},
author = {Hatebur, Denis and Heisel, Maritta},
publisher = {Springer},
series = {LNCS 6351},
pages = {317--331},
url = {https://link.springer.com/}
}

2009 A Foundation for Requirements Analysis of Dependable Software Hatebur, D. & Heisel, M. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security (SAFECOMP)   Springer
Abstract: We present patterns for expressing dependability requirements, such
as confidentiality, integrity, availability, and reliability. The paper considers random
faults as well as certain attacks and therefore supports a combined safety
and security engineering. The patterns - attached to functional requirements - are
part of a pattern system that can be used to identify missing requirements. The
approach is illustrated on a cooperative adaptive cruise control system.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HH09b,
year = {2009},
title = {A Foundation for Requirements Analysis of Dependable Software},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security (SAFECOMP)},
author = {Hatebur, Denis and Heisel, Maritta},
publisher = {Springer},
series = {LNCS 5775},
pages = {311--325},
url = {https://link.springer.com/}
}

2008 Analysis and Component-based Realization of Security Requirements Hatebur, D., Heisel, M. & Schmidt, H. Proceedings of the International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (AReS)   IEEE Computer Society
Abstract: We present a process to develop secure software with an
extensive pattern-based security requirements engineering
phase. It supports identifying and analyzing conflicts between
different security requirements. In the design phase,
we proceed by selecting security software components that
achieve security requirements. The process enables software
developers to systematically identify, analyze, and finally
realize security requirements using security software
components. We illustrate our approach by a lawyer agency
software example.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HHS2008b,
year = {2008},
title = {Analysis and Component-based Realization of Security Requirements},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (AReS)},
author = {Hatebur, Denis and Heisel, Maritta and Schmidt, Holger},
publisher = {IEEE Computer Society},
series = {IEEE Transactions},
pages = {195--203},
url = {https://www.ieee.org}
}

2007 A Pattern System for Security Requirements Engineering Hatebur, D., Heisel, M. & Schmidt, H. Proceedings of the International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (AReS)   IEEE Computer Society
Abstract: We present a pattern system for security requirements engineering,
consisting of security problem frames and concretized
security problem frames. These are special kinds
of problem frames that serve to structure, characterize, analyze,
and finally solve software development problems in the
area of software and system security. We equip each frame
with formal preconditions and postconditions. The analysis
of these conditions results in a pattern system that explicitly
shows the dependencies between the different frames.
Moreover, we indicate related frames, which are commonly
used together with the considered frame. Hence, our approach
helps security engineers to avoid omissions and to
cover all security requirements that are relevant for a given
problem.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HHS2007,
year = {2007},
title = {A Pattern System for Security Requirements Engineering},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (AReS)},
author = {Hatebur, Denis and Heisel, Maritta and Schmidt, Holger},
publisher = {IEEE Computer Society},
series = {IEEE Transactions},
pages = {356--365},
url = {https://www.ieee.org}
}

2007 A Security Engineering Process based on Patterns Hatebur, D., Heisel, M. & Schmidt, H. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Secure Systems Methodologies using Patterns (SPatterns)   IEEE Computer Society
Abstract: We present a security engineering process based on security
problem frames and concretized security problem
frames. Both kinds of frames constitute patterns for analyzing
security problems and associated solution approaches.
They are arranged in a pattern system that makes dependencies
between them explicit. We describe step-by-step how
the pattern system can be used to analyze a given security
problem and how solution approaches can be found. Further,
we introduce a new frame that focuses on the privacy
requirement anonymity.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HHS2007a,
year = {2007},
title = {A Security Engineering Process based on Patterns},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Workshop on Secure Systems Methodologies using Patterns (SPatterns)},
author = {Hatebur, Denis and Heisel, Maritta and Schmidt, Holger},
publisher = {IEEE Computer Society},
url = {https://www.ieee.org}
}

2005 Architectural Patterns for Problem Frames Choppy, C., Hatebur, D. & Heisel, M. IEEE Proceedings -- Software, Special Issue on Relating Software Requirements and Architecture
Abstract: Problem frames provide a characterisation and classification of software development problems.
Fitting a problem into an appropriate problem frame should not only help to understand
it, but also to solve the problem (the idea being that, once the adequate problem frame is
identified, then the associated development method should be available). We propose software
architectural patterns corresponding to the different problem frames that may serve as
a starting point for the construction of the software solving the given problem. These architectural
patterns exactly reflect the properties of the problems fitting into a given frame, and
they can be combined in a modular way to solve multi-frame problems.
BibTeX:
@article{CHH2005a,
year = {2005},
title = {Architectural Patterns for Problem Frames},
author = {Choppy, Christine and Hatebur, Denis and Heisel, Maritta},
journal = {IEEE Proceedings -- Software, Special Issue on Relating Software Requirements and Architecture},
url = {https://www.ieee.org}
}

2005 Problem Frames and Architectures for Security Problems Hatebur, D. & Heisel, M. Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security (SAFECOMP)   Springer
Abstract: Abstract: We present two (?) problem frames that serve to structure, characterize and analyze software
development problems in the area of software and system security. These problem frames constitute
patterns for representing security problems, variants of which occur frequently in practice. Solving such
problems starts with the development of an appropriate software architecture. To support that process,
we furthermore present architectural patterns associated with the problem frames.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HH2005,
year = {2005},
title = {Problem Frames and Architectures for Security Problems},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security (SAFECOMP)},
author = {Hatebur, Denis and Heisel, Maritta},
publisher = {Springer},
series = {LNCS 3688},
pages = {390--404},
url = {https://link.springer.com/}
}

2002 A Problem-Oriented Approach to Common Criteria Certification Rottke, T., Hatebur, D., Heisel, M. & Heiner, M. Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security (SAFECOMP)   Springer
Abstract: There is an increasing demand to certify the security of systems according to the Common Criteria (CC). The CC distinguish several evaluation assurance levels (EALs), level EAL7 being the highest and requiring the application of formal techniques. We present a method for requirements engineering and (semi-formal and formal) modeling of systems to be certified according to the higher evaluation assurance levels of the CC. The method is problem oriented, i.e. it is driven by the environment in which the system will operate and by a mission statement. We illustrate our approach by an industrial case study, namely an electronic purse card (EPC) to be implemented on a Java Smart Card. As a novelty, we treat the mutual asymmetric authentication of the card and the terminal into which the card is inserted.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{RHH+2002,
year = {2002},
title = {A Problem-Oriented Approach to Common Criteria Certification},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security (SAFECOMP)},
author = {Rottke, Thomas and Hatebur, Denis and Heisel, Maritta and Heiner, Monika},
publisher = {Springer},
series = {LNCS 2434},
pages = {334--346},
url = {https://link.springer.com/}
}

2002 Confidentiality-Preserving Refinement is Compositional -- Sometimes Santen, T., Heisel, M. & Pfitzmann, A. Proc. Computer Security -- ESORICS 2002   Springer
Abstract: Confidentiality-preserving refinement describes a relation between a
specification and an implementation that ensures that all confidentiality properties
required in the specification are preserved by the implementation in a probabilistic
setting. The present paper investigates the condition under which that notion
of refinement is compositional, i.e. the condition under which refining a subsystem
of a larger system yields a confidentiality-preserving refinement of the larger
system. It turns out that the refinement relation is not composition in general,
but the condition for compositionality can be stated in a way that builds on the
analysis of subsystems thus aiding system designers in analyzing a composition.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SHP2002,
year = {2002},
title = {Confidentiality-Preserving Refinement is Compositional -- Sometimes},
booktitle = {Proc.\ Computer Security -- ESORICS 2002},
author = {Santen, Thomas and Heisel, Maritta and Pfitzmann, Andreas},
publisher = {Springer},
series = {LNCS 2502},
pages = {194--211},
url = {https://link.springer.com/}
}

2002 Specification and Refinement of Secure IT Systems Santen, T., Pfitzmann, A. & Heisel, M. Proc. International Workshop on Refinement of Critical Systems
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SPH2002,
year = {2002},
title = {Specification and Refinement of Secure {IT} Systems},
booktitle = {Proc.\ International Workshop on Refinement of Critical Systems},
author = {Santen, Thomas and Pfitzmann, Andreas and Heisel, Maritta},
note = {http://www.esil.univ-mrs.fr/\verb|~|spc/rcs02/papers/Santen.ps.gz}
}

2001 Confidentiality-Preserving Refinement Heisel, M., Pfitzmann, A. & Santen, T. Proc. 14th IEEE Computer Security Foundations Workshop
Abstract: We develop a condition for confidentiality-preserving refinement which is both necessary and sufficient. Using a slight extension of CSP as notation, we give a toy example to illustrate the usefulness of our condition.
Systems are specified by their behavior and a window. For an abstract system, the window specifies what information is allowed to be observed by its environment. For a concrete system, the window specifies what information cannot be hidden from its environment. A concrete system is a confidentiality-preserving refinement of an abstract system,
if it behaviorally refines the abstract system and if the
information revealed by the concrete window is allowed to
be revealed according to the abstract window.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HPS2001,
year = {2001},
title = {Confidentiality-Preserving Refinement},
booktitle = {Proc.\ 14th IEEE Computer Security Foundations Workshop},
author = {Heisel, Maritta and Pfitzmann, Andreas and Santen, Thomas},
publisher = {IEEE Computer Society},
pages = {295--305}
}


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