Universität Duisburg-Essen, Institut für Evangelische Theologie 

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Schart, Aaron, last edited: 2007-10-15

Brooke, George J.: The Twelve Minor Prophets and the Dead Sea Scrolls. In: Congress Volume Leiden 2004, ed. André Lemaire. Vetus Testamentum. Supplements 109. Leiden / Boston: Brill, 19-43.


Introduction [19]

The purpose of this paper is to review the overall picture of the evidence for the preservation and use of the Twelve Minor Prophets/1/ in the Dead Sea Scrolls, most especially at Qumran but also in the other finds from the Judaean Desert, to indicate further avenues of research, both for the so-called biblical manuscripts and also for the sectarian ones. In a presentation of this kind it will not be possible to provide an exhaustive survey of all the evidence, but I hope to cover enough topics to suggest strongly that the Twelve both as a collection and as individual books deserve more attention in the light of the Dead Sea Scrolls than they have yet received./2/


1. The Textual Evidence [19-34]

A. Manuscript copies of the Twelve [20-

        4QXII(a) = 4Q76: "not copied at Qumran, but brought there from outside." "Jonah follows Malachi"

        4QXII(b) = 4Q77:

        4QXII(c) = 4Q78: "There is, however, a striking agreement with LXX Hos. 13:4 in fragment 8; the text has to be restored according to the longer LXX text, not according to die shorter MT."

        4QXII(d) = 4Q79

        4QXII(e) = 4Q80: "It is tempting to suggest that fragments 6 and 7 of approximately the same size and shape, and containing the same lines of Zech. 2:10-14, but several centimeters apart, were preserved because they were one on top of the other."

        4QXII(f) = 4Q81

        4QXII(g) = 4Q82: "the most challenging of die extant manuscripts of die Twelve"

        5QXII = 5Q4: "The fact that part of the opening section of Amos survives may indicate that rather than 5Q4 being a copy of the Twelve, it contained Amos alone."

        8HevXIIgr = "It is a version of the Twelve in Greek which in some parts has been corrected towards a Hebrew Vorlage 'much closer to MT than to that of the LXX'"

        Mur 88 = "found together with skeletal remains and clothes"; "the only substantial variant is an assimilation to the text of Psalm 77:18 in the hymn of Hab. 3:60".


B. The Text-Critical Use of the Explicit Citations of the Twelve [27-31]


C. Overall textual significance [31-33]


D. Significance for the Collection of the Twelve [33-34]

<34:> "Overall a strong case can be made on the basis of variant order alone that there was more than one literary edition of the Twelve."


2. The Use of the Twelve in the Non-Scriptural Scrolls from Qumran [34-42]


A. In general [34-36]


B. Sectarian Appreciation of the Twelve as a Collection [36-42]

        The Number Twelve.

        Intertextual Exegesis of the Twelve.

        Running Exegesis of the Twelve.

        Significant Echoes of die Twelve.

        Key Motifs.


<42:> "This brief survey of some of the materials from the Judaean desert relating to the Twelve has disclosed that there is much work still to be done on die transmission of the text of the Twelve in the late Second Temple period. For the Twelve the data from the desert challenge the text-critical methods used for their analysis so far and demand whether the theory of multiple literary editions might not account better for the evidence."