Classroom Management

The Linz Concept of Classroom Leadership (LKK)

Good classroom management includes, in addition to constructive and reactive handling of disruptions, especially preventive and proactive teaching actions and thus creates the basic framework for successful learning (Lenske & Mayr, 2015a, b). The LKK is based on Kounin's classroom management techniques (1970, 2006), but also draws on strategies from humanism that influence leading or acting in groups (cf. Rogers, 1961; Gordon, 2006; Tauch & Tausch, 1971) as well as instructional design strategies that promote attention or reduce frustrations and aberrations (e.g., Hattie, 2009). The LKK comprises a total of 24 classroom management strategies, whereby eight strategies can always be assigned to one of the three categories of control, relationship promotion, and instructional design in terms of content:

Relationship promotion Control Instructional Design
  • Authenticity
  • Appreciation
  • Understanding
  • Communication
  • Participation
  • Community support
  • Positive emotionality
  • Humor
  • Clarity of behavioral rules
  • Ubiquity
  • Occupation of the students
  • Demand for performance
  • Control of work behavior
  • Intervention in case of disturbances
  • Punshiment
  • Positive reinforcement
  • Professional competence
  • Significance of the learning objectives
  • Structuredness of the lessons
  • Explanatory qualtiy
  • Intrestingness of the lessons
  • Clarity of work instructions
  • Positive expectations
  • Feedback on learning progress


The Linz Classroom Leadership Diagnostic Questionnaire also provides a tool for students to provide feedback on their own classroom leadership performance. It can be used by interested parties for the individual optimization of their own classroom management competence and serves the continuous personal development in this subarea of the teaching profession. 

Further information on the LKK as well as the Linz Classroom Leadership Diagnostic Questionnaire as a feedback instrument on classroom leadership strategies can be found at:

Diagnosis sheet for students - secondary level I - female
Ldk-i-w-01 Ldk-i-w-02

The Linz Concept of Class Leadership carries two instruments:

1) The Linz Class Leadership Diagnostic Questionnaire is used to measure class leadership. The LDK is the wording of students, class and observer perspectives (teacher, observer, student perspective) to Krippen, Pflanzl, Lenske & Mayr, acts; Lenske & Mayr, 2015 ).

2) A knowledge test on classroom management based on the LKK. The test is used to collect declarative and conditional-procedural professional knowledge in the area of classroom management (Streib, Krammer, Seethaler & Lenske, Processes).

Both instruments were used in the project's evaluation.

Further information on the LKK as well as the LDK can be found at:

For questions about the knowledge test, please contact.