Terahertz Integration Center
The THz semiconductor chips produced at the ZHO by the BHE and OE departments are well known in the international research community -- now the ZHO is creating the possibilities to realize complete THz modules. This will enable cooperation with industry and research institutes on the system level, for the applications of the day after tomorrow: 6G Terahertz communication with more than 100 Gigabit/s data rates, state-of-the-art radars, material recognition and medical imaging. For new production facilities and equipment, UDE is receiving over 6.5 million euros from state and EU funds from the EFRE/NRW. research infrastructures funding line. This will create a university terahertz integration center (THzIZ) that is unique in Germany and covers the entire spectrum from materials and chip technology to modules and systems.
Research Laboratory Microelectronics Duisburg-Essen for High Frequency Beam Forming
Electronic and photonic high-frequency chips are developed in the research laboratory Microelectronics (ForLab) SmartBeam. New applications in robotics and autonomous traffic require high-resolution radar systems with the ability to distinguish between materials. This can be achieved with carrier frequencies in the THz frequency range. In order to generate THz radiation with sufficient intensity, individual THz emitters must be interconnected. These "phased array" configurations allow deflection of the beam in any direction to scan the environment -- this is the goal of ForLab SmartBeam.
The ForLab SmartBeam is funded by the BMBF with 4 M€ until 2021: a new metal-organic vapor phase deposition (MAPD) facility for the growth of semiconductor structures for THz transistors, an atomic layer deposition (ALD) facility and THz measurement instruments will be purchased in this project. Besides BHE, the OE and DSV departments are involved in ForLab.
Joint Lab InP Devices of the University of Duisburg-Essen and Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Berlin
The UDE has founded the Joint Lab "InP Devices" with the Ferdinand Braun Institute in Berlin.
The Joint Lab accesses the complementary infrastructures of FBH and UDE in order to combine the fundamental materials and device research at UDE - with a focus on indium phosphide (InP) - with the industrial process technology of FBH. With InP-based monolithic integrated RF circuits (MMIC), highest frequencies in the Terahertz (THz) band can be achieved and thus new system applications can be realized at low cost. The partners jointly research innovative semiconductor structures and components for THz applications and develop integrated components for the use of electronic THz technology. Applications include non-destructive material testing, high-resolution medical imaging and broadband communication systems.
Mobile Material Transceiver
The department BHE is involved in the SFB/TRR MARIE with two subprojects: C02 and C11. Both projects deal with the investigation of efficient electronic terahertz sources. These sources are realized with resonant tunnel diodes (RTD) and heterostructure bipolar transistors (HBT) by means of special semiconductor processes in the material system indium phosphide. Oscillators can still be operated efficiently at THz frequencies. Of particular importance is the control of the radiated frequency and the phase position of the oscillators in order to be able to interconnect them in fields. Here the principle of "subharmonic injection locking" is applied, i.e. the oscillators are phase-locked to a control oscillator with 2x or 3x low frequency.
Technologies for Imaging, Radar and Communication Applications (TeraApps)
TeraApps is a European Marie-Skłodowska-Curie PhD network for terahertz technologies led by the University of Glasgow. It comprises 15 PhD students who receive excellent training in the multidisciplinary field of semiconductor terahertz technologies in 10 leading European laboratories in science and industry for applications in imaging, radar, communications and sensor technology. In Duisburg the departments BHE and ATE are involved.
Nanowire LED blue/green
Gallium Nitride light emitting diodes with indium gallium nitride quantum wells marginalize the energy demand of lighting. But the modulation of the light from these quantum wells becomes very slow due to internal electric fields and prevents applications in optical communication technology. The lateral surface of GaN nanowires are field-free and offer a way out of this situation to achieve record values in optical data transmission.
III/V nanowire core-shell structures offer a complex nanoscale topology for hetero bipolar transistors. For the function of the device a loss of poor transport of minorities through the base is crucial. The project aims at a suitable material design for a highly efficient suppression of the recombination mechanisms with the goal to demonstrate for the first time with a nanowire bipolar transistor.
The leakage current via p-n contacts in semiconductor nanowires is orders of magnitude above theoretical models and limits p-n applications in solar cells, light-emitting diodes and transistors. In this project leakage current mechanisms are analyzed and strategies for reduction are developed. Using the example of tunnel-assisted defect recombination, an experimental reduction of the leakage current by many orders of magnitude was successful.
Project partners: Prof. Thomas Hannappel, TU Ilmenau