Completed research projects

The research conducted by Prof. Geldermann at the and University of Duisburg-Essen, can be summarized under the research areas , , and . Besides funding has been obtained by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) or the European Union.

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  • Corporate CO2e-Footprint of Stadtwerke Göttingen AG
  • Duration: 2013 - 2021
    Funding: Stadtwerke Göttingen AG
    Location: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

    In a corporate CO2e footprint, all greenhouse gas emissions of a company are documented at hand of a defined balance sheet limits, in order to summarize and evaluate them by their converting into CO2 equivalents (CO2e). On this basis, cost-efficient reduction measures of greenhouse gas emissions can be identified. Unavoidable CO2e emissions can be offset by investments in high-quality, ecologically and socially meaningful climate protection projects. Final certification guarantees high quality and transparency according to standardised rules. As an energy supply company, Stadtwerke Göttingen has already taken the first steps towards becoming a climate-neutral company in 2013. The baseline study for 2011 and 2012 thus creates the necessary transparency in the value chain and serves as a starting point for reporting in accordance with the German Sustainability Code. Over the years, a monitoring of the greenhouse gas emissions associated with Stadtwerke Göttingen AG over a period of several years allows for tracking the effects of the measures listed and implemented in the baseline study.

  • NEDS - Sustainable Energy Supply Lower Saxony
  • Duration: 2015 - 2019
    Funding: Volkswagen Stiftung, Niedersächsisches Ministerium für Wissenschaft und Kultur (Förderprogramm "Wissenschaft für nachhaltige Entwicklung")
    Coordination: Prof. Dr. Lutz Hofmann, Lehrstuhl für Elektrische Energieversorgung, Leibniz Universität Hannover
    Location: Universität Duisburg-Essen, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

    The research project "NEDS - Sustainable Energy Supply" Lower Saxony aims at developing sustainable and technically feasible transition paths to a renewable energy based power supply for Lower Saxony. Sustainability criteria and parameters of target states for the year 2050 will be communicated and analysed at the beginning of the project with a broad spectrum of stakeholders from politics, business, environmental and social associations as well as consumers at a public symposium. From this symposium, sustainability criteria with associated weightings are to be defined and possible parameters of sustainable target scenarios for the year 2050 are to be defined.
    Within the framework of the project, an energy supply system is sustainable if the sustainability criteria identified in the project best meet the needs of both today's population and future generations beyond the year 2050. This takes into account the state of Lower Saxony's nature, the use of natural resources as well as socio-economic impacts and social acceptance of possible characteristics of a reliable, technically feasible power supply system.
    When creating transition paths to a sustainable target state, technical, social, ecological and economic parameters are to be examined with the aid of appropriate models within the framework of a multi-criteria scenario comparison. In addition, the project focuses on the identification and analysis of the linkages and interactions of the submodels from the four parameter areas. This enables an interdisciplinary project consortium as well as an opening of the project with regard to socially relevant groups and goes far beyond previous technically and economically evaluated investigations of target scenarios.
    Upon completion of the project, at least one sustainable transition path to a possible sustainable, electricity-based energy supply system for the year 2050 in Lower Saxony will be identified under the identified criteria.

    Translated with www.DeepL.com/Translator

  • Simulation-based evaluation of measures to increase energy sustainability in port operations
  • Duration: 2017 - 2019
    Funding: Bundesministerium für Verkehr und digitale Infrastruktur im Rahmen der Förderrichtlinie Innovative Hafentechnologien (IHATEC)
    Collaborators: HHLA Hamburger Hafen und Logistik AG Vattenfall Energy Trading GmbH
    Coordination: Hamburg Port Consulting (HPC)
    Location: Universität Duisburg-Essen, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

    The prevention of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to mitigate the expected climate change requires efforts in all sectors of the economy, including the operation of ports and port terminals. Both regulatory requirements and the requirements of other stakeholders are leading to a continuously increasing demand for concepts for sustainable port operations.
    Within the framework of the SustEnergyPort project (simulation-based evaluation of measures to increase energy sustainability in port operations), a structured, model-based procedure is to be developed and designed in terms of content by which port operations can identify suitable measures to improve their energy efficiency and use of renewable energies. Thus, the project results should help port operators to improve their environmental compatibility as well as their profitability. Consequently, the project makes a central contribution to maintaining the high competitiveness of German ports while continuously reducing CO2 emissions.

    In the first project phase, a catalogue of potentially applicable measures for various types of port terminals will be compiled and pre-evaluated. A selection of promising measures to avoid CO2 emissions will then be simulated in a software tool within the framework of a case study in the Port of Hamburg and evaluated both in terms of their energy consumption and ecological balance. In this context, the marketing of flexibility potentials in electricity consumption on the energy markets will also be investigated. The joint economic and ecological evaluation of the measures is carried out with the help of multi-criteria decision support. On this basis, a roadmap for achieving a profitable and environmentally compatible terminal operation is to be designed.
    The Chair of Production and Logistics is carrying out the project 'SustEnergyPort' together with the Hamburger Hafen- und Transportberatungsgesellschaft HPC Hamburg Port Consulting GmbH. As associated project partners, experts from the third-largest European terminal operator - Hamburger Hafen und Logistik AG - as well as the energy trader Vattenfall Energy Trading GmbH will provide advice.

  • Project-based exchange with the City University of Hongkong
  • Duration: 2018 - 2019
    Funding: DAAD - Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst
    Location: Universität Duisburg-Essen

    The aim of the project is the scientific exchange between the Department of Systems
    Engineering and Engineering Management of the City University of Hong Kong and the Chair of ABWL and Production Management. Subject of the joint
    scientific work is the development of a method for multi-criteria
    risk management using the example of rail transport operations. The aim of risk management is to
    the avoidance of serious risks on the one hand and the minimization of possible risks on the other.
    The risk management process includes risk analysis, risk management, risk management and risk management.
    and risk monitoring. At present, mainly qualitative methods are used in risk management.
    and scientifically discussed. These methods, however, reach their limits when
    there is a lack of meaningful statistical data or non-probabilistic uncertainties and
    uncertainties must be taken into account.
    Therefore, in this project approaches of "evidential reasoning/belief-rule based
    reasoning" can be integrated into the methods of risk management, which allow simultaneous
    consideration of quantitative, qualitative, uncertain and incomplete information. This model approach is to be developed and explained using the example of the railway operator.

  • Resource Efficiency in Interorganizational Networks - Planning Methods to Utilize Renewable Resources
  • Duration: 2012 - 2018
    Funding: DFG-Graduiertenkolleg GRK 1703
    Location: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

    The overall goal of the Research Training Group GRK 1703 is the development and application of methods to improve resource efficiency in interorganizational networks. The focus is on the efficient use of renewable raw materials in production processes using by-products, such that several products are produced simultaneously. The aim is a cascade use, i.e. the sequential use of the same resource for material and energetic purposes. However, the quantification of the potential advantages and disadvantages of this sequential use of resources along the value chain is methodologically ambitious and has been little studied from the individual company perspective. Thus, our research focuses on sustainability management which requires changes in all sub-areas of the industrial network - operational and inter-company, on an operational, tactical and strategic level, with regard to systems and processes, for raw material suppliers, manufacturers, retailers and customers. We have chosen lignocellulosic materials for further investigation because they are important raw materials for both the manufacturing and the process industries. 28 PhD students from the Faculties of Agricultural Sciences, Forest Sciences, Mathematics and Economics participated in the RTG.

  • Optimizing Pathways and Market Systems for Enhanced Competitiveness of Sustainable Bio-Energy (BIOTEAM)
  • Duration: 2013 - 2016
    Funding: Intelligent Energy Europe (IEE) Programm der EU
    Coordination: JIN - Joint Implementation Network, Groningen
    Location: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

    The aim of the EU-project BIOTEAM is to help public and private stakeholders gain better insights on how the bioenergy market works and how private business decisions and EU and national policy instruments (e.g., NREAPs, fiscal instruments, feed-in schemes, land-use/forest management policies, etc.) affect bioenergy pathway competitiveness and sustainability (i.e. environmental, economic and social). The project BIOTEAM investigates how public and private sector stakeholders in six EU countries (Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Latvia and Poland) revise their decisions (e.g. bioenergy policy incentives, choice of biomass feedstock, investment size of bioenergy production plants).

  • e-Home Energy Project 2020
  • Duration: 2010 - 2016
    Funding: Avacon AG und Energieforschungszentrum Niedersachsen (EFZN)
    Coordination: Prof. Dr. Lutz Hofmann, Lehrstuhl für Elektrische Energieversorgung, Leibniz Universität Hannover (bis 2014)
    Location: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

    The aim of the research project on behalf of E.ON Avacon and in cooperation with the Energy Research Center Lower Saxony (efzn) is to analyze future developments resulting from the integration of decentralized energy generation and additional loads, such as electromobility in electrical distribution networks. In 32 households in two local networks near Bremen, the effects of the use of electric cars, photovoltaic systems on one's own roof, battery storage in the basement, modern climate technology and smart metering were investigated. Within the framework of cross-sectional research, legal and socio-political issues are to be investigated on the one hand. On the other hand, acceptance research also represents an essential work package. The work of the Chair of Production and Logistics deals, among other things, with the development of business models for innovative system services.

  • Life cycle assessment of the General Logistics Systems (GLS) Group
  • Duration: 2015
    Funding: General Logistics Systems Germany GmbH & Co. OHG
    Location: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

    The aim of the project was to compile a corporate carbon footprint for the 2014/15 fiscal year for the transport service provider General Logistics Systems (GLS) Group and for the individual countries in which GLS operates. In addition, CO2e emissions per parcel were calculated for GLS Germany's Think Green Service. Life cycle analyses and corporate carbon footprints can be used to identify potential for ecological improvement and for more efficient use of resources. The analysis of the operational CO2e footprint can provide the necessary transparency in the supply chain in order to identify particularly emissions-intensive activities and thus enable optimisation of the process chains. In addition, they serve as decision support, e.g. in strategic planning, priority setting, product or process development.

  • IT for Green: Environmental, Energy and Resource Management with environmental management information systems (EMIS)
  • Duration: 2011 - 2014
    Funding: EFRE (Europäischer Fonds für regionale Entwicklung - Förderlinie 2.1.3 Innovationsverbünde)
    Coordination: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jorge Marx Gómez, Professur Wirtschaftsinformatik I / VLBA, Universität Oldenburg
    Location: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

    IT-for-Green aims to develop suitable environmental management information systems (EMIS) that not only support the demand for legally compliant business, but also have a much more strategic character and offer direct assistance to decision-makers in companies. The following companies are project partners: CEWE Stiftung & Co. KGaA, Hellmann Worldwide Logistics GmbH & Co. KG, erecon AG, Nordwest-Informationssysteme GmbH & Co. KG and the municipality of Spiekeroog. The tasks of the Chair of Production and Logistics include Green Logistics and sustainable product development, in particular the automated determination of CO2 emission values along the supply chain.

  • Cooperation and scientific exchange "Optimization and its Applications in Learning and Industry".
  • Duration: 2010 - 2014
    Funding: EU, International Research Staff Exchange Scheme (IRSES)
    Coordination: Prof. Dr. Anita Schöbel, Institute for Numerik, Georg-August-University Göttingen
    Location: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

    Mathematical programming is often considered as optimization without applications. OptALI aims to motivate research activities in optimization by solving real-world problems and to make optimization models and techniques work in practice. Each of the participating sites (Auckland, Christchurch, Göttingen, Kaiserslautern, TU Denmark) recognized that such a transfer is an important goal for the mutual benefit of researchers and practitioners. In OptALI we join forces and learn from each other to jointly push the boundaries of optimization towards practice. The main achievements of OptALI are: Postgraduate research: 35 young researchers had the opportunity to work on applied optimization abroad and in strong cooperation with other researchers for several months. Together with them we obtained new results on robust optimization, transportation, health care, evacuation, and scheduling which is reflected in numerous papers and conference talks.Teaching: The participating experienced researchers shared nearly 60 lectures to lay the fundamental knowledge in integer programming, multicriteria optimization and robustness.

  • Sustainable Use of Bioenergy: Bridging Climate Protection, Nature Conservation and Society (II)
  • Duration: 2009 - 2014
    Funding: Volkswagen Stiftung, Niedersächsisches Ministerium für Wissenschaft und Kultur
    Coordination: Prof. Dr. Hans Ruppert
    Location: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

    In this interdisciplinary research network, the chances and risks of bioenergy are investigated in the context of sustainable development. The Chair of Production and Logistics took over two subprojects: Development and evaluation of evaluation criteria for various concepts of energetic biomass use from an ecological, economic, social and technical point of view. The aim of this subproject is to evaluate the impact of different approaches of biomass energy use from the perspectives of ecology, economy, technology and social sciences in the context of sustainable development in order to provide decision support for the selection of biomass use. The biomass concepts to be compared relate to the area of a concrete potential bioenergy village or to a region in a district in Lower Saxony. Modelling and optimisation of the production and distribution system for bioenergy villages For bioenergy villages, more or less efficient and economically profitable solutions have so far been found for the design of the individual plant components for electricity production (e.g. biogas plant, block-type thermal power station) as well as for heat preparation and distribution (e.g. wood chip heating plant, local heating network). The aim of this subproject is to develop an optimising production and distribution model based on site-specific input data to determine the best plant constellation and design according to economic criteria as well as the optimum extent of biomass use.

  • CO₂ product balance for drinking water supply with the GROHE BLUE fitting system compared to mineral water
  • Duration: 2013
    Funding: GROHE AG (Düsseldorf)
    Location: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

    The aim of the study, on behalf of GROHE AG (Düsseldorf), is to compile a product carbon footprint based on the greenhouse gas emissions generated by the consumption of one litre of drinking water from the Grohe Blue faucet in defined use scenarios. The GROHE BLUE® kitchen tap system converts ordinary tap water into carbonated drinking water by filtering, cooling and adding carbon dioxide to the water. In order to aggregate the values of various greenhouse gases into a single result, all greenhouse gases are converted into CO2 equivalents (CO2-Eq). According to ISO 14067 and PAS 2050:2011 standards, all upstream and downstream processes related to the provision of mineral water must be considered. The data basis for the impact factors is the IPCC report. The CO2 product balance for GROHE BLUE® drinking water was carried out with the Umberto NXT LCA software using ecoinvent data.

  • Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA) for the Registration and Restriction according to REACH: Assessment of the Abatement Costs of Chemicals– ex ante und ex post
  • Duration: 2011 - 2013
    Funding: Umweltbundesamt (UBA Berlin)
    Coordination: BiPRO (München)
    Location: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

    REACH is the European Community Regulation on chemicals and their safe use (EC 1907/2006) concerning the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemical substances. The main objective of this project is to collect and analyze data regarding the abatement costs of chemical emissions based on sample substances. The main focus is on the costs of using alternative substances and techniques (processes and products), taking the cost guidelines of the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) in Helsinki into account.

  • EU Twinning Project TR 09 IB EN 01 to control industrial VOC emissions (Twinning Project VOC Turkey)
  • Duration: 2011 - 2013
    Funding: EU Twinning Projekt TR09 IB EN 01
    Coordination: Umweltbundesamt (UBA), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH
    Location: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

    The aim of a EU Twinning project is to support new EU member states and EU candidate countries in adopting EU law and building the necessary administrative capacity. Prof. Geldermann was invited to Ankara as an expert to report on the control of industrial VOC emissions in Germany and the EU.

  • Life cycle assessment of biogas plants under consideration of Lower Saxony conditions
  • Duration: 2010 - 2011
    Funding: Niedersächsisches Ministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft, Verbraucherschutz und Landesentwicklung, Hannover
    Location: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

    Biogas can be used for electricity, heat and fuel production as well as for feeding into the natural gas grid, after further processing to natural gas quality. The Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) provides economic incentives for the use of biogas. The extent to which the expansion of biogas plants and the use of biogas meet expectations in terms of ecological benefits (e.g. positive greenhouse gas balance) can be investigated using the life cycle assessment. The aim of this project are specific life cycle assessment studies for five biogas plants taking into account the special conditions in typical Lower Saxony regions, namely in the arable farming regions of Southern Lower Saxony and Lüneburg Heath, in a refining region, in a dairy cattle region and in a mixed region.

  • Sustainable Use of Bioenergy: Bridging Climate Protection, Nature Conservation and Society
  • Duration: 2009 - 2011
    Funding: BMBF, CONYCIT (Chile)
    Coordination: IZNE - Interdisziplinäres Zentrum für Nachhaltige Entwicklung, Universität Göttingen
    Location: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

    In this interdisciplinary research network, the chances and risks of bioenergy are investigated in the context of sustainable development. The Chair of Production and Logistics took over two subprojects: Development and evaluation of evaluation criteria for various concepts of energetic biomass use from an ecological, economic, social and technical point of view. The aim of this subproject is to evaluate the impact of different approaches of biomass energy use from the perspectives of ecology, economy, technology and social sciences in the context of sustainable development in order to provide decision support for the selection of biomass use. The biomass concepts to be compared relate to the area of a concrete potential bioenergy village or to a region in a district in Lower Saxony. Modelling and optimisation of the production and distribution system for bioenergy villages For bioenergy villages, more or less efficient and economically profitable solutions have so far been found for the design of the individual plant components for electricity production (e.g. biogas plant, block-type thermal power station) as well as for heat preparation and distribution (e.g. wood chip heating plant, local heating network). The aim of this subproject is to develop an optimising production and distribution model based on site-specific input data to determine the best plant constellation and design according to economic criteria as well as the optimum extent of biomass use.

  • Doctoral Programme "Biodiversity and Society"
  • Duration: 2010
    Funding: Ministerium für Wissenschaft und Kultur Niedersachsen / Niedersächsisches Vorab der VolkswagenStiftung
    Coordination: Prof. Dr. Marggraf, Fakultät für Agrarwissenschaften
    Location: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

    In the doctoral program "Biodiversity and Society - Social Dimensions of Protection and Use of Biological Diversity", which was organized by the Göttingen Graduate School of Social Sciences (GGG), about twenty doctoral students from various scientific disciplines (including pedagogy, sociology, law, economics, philosophy and political science) were conducting research. In business and economics, indicators for estimating the potential impact of transport on biodiversity are examined. The aim is to analyse the cause-and-effect relationships between business activities and impacts on the local and global environment.

  • Leasing of Chemicals as a Model for Sustainable Development with Test Procedures and Quality Criteria on the Basis of Pilot Projects in Germany
  • Duration: 2008 - 2010
    Funding: Umweltbundesamt (UBA Berlin)
    Coordination: BiPRO (München)
    Location: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

    Chemical leasing is an innovative business model in which the classic quantity-related payment (€/t) for chemicals is replaced by a benefit-oriented payment (e.g. €/m² cleaned area). This converts chemical consumption for the chemical manufacturer from a revenue factor to a cost factor. This also creates an economic interest for the chemical manufacturer to reduce the consumption of chemical products by the user through process optimization. As a result, there will be intensified cooperation between chemical manufacturers and users. This can result in economic advantages for both partners and in particular - through reduced chemical consumption - to resource conservation, reduction of environmental pollution, energy savings and avoidance/reduction of risks from the use of chemicals. In the Federal Environment Agency's research project, quality criteria were developed on the basis of eight initiated and accompanied pilot projects, which are intended to help ensure a high level of the business model with regard to environmental and health aspects.

  • Analysis of Life Cycle Costing Business Models
  • Duration: 2009 - 2010
    Funding: Industrieprojekt
    Location: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

    The increased competition from other countries requires a stronger differentiation of the products of the German mechanical engineering industry. High cost pressure, declining margins and extended product responsibility have an impact on the entire service life of complex products, machines and plants. This increases the importance of considering the costs resulting from the investment throughout the entire life cycle when making procurement decisions. In addition to procurement costs, costs for maintenance, repair and unscheduled plant shutdowns are decisive for the long-term profitability of investment goods. The Life Cycle Costing (LCC) concept was developed to systematically take these cost factors into account in investment decisions. In a comparative life cycle cost calculation, all costs incurred during the entire life cycle from acquisition to disposal are included. In order to elaborate the special features of the design of these concepts from the point of view of a machine manufacturer, various life cycle cost contracts are presented first. Particular attention is paid to incentive systems and testing mechanisms that allow a fair distribution of the expenses and yields associated with the concept. Subsequently, opportunities and difficulties will be demonstrated and explained using the example of LCC contracts for machine tools used in automotive manufacturing.

  • Costs and Potentials of Greenhouse Gas Emssion Reduction in Lower Saxony
  • Duration: 2009
    Funding: Ministerium für Umwelt und Klimaschutz sowie Ministerium für Wissenschaft und Kultur Niedersachsen
    Coordination: Energie-Forschungszentrum Niedersachsen (EFZN)
    Location: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

    In 2008, Lower Saxony was the first federal state to appoint a government commission on climate protection. Its task is to support the state government in developing a climate protection concept for Lower Saxony. Against this background, the Energy Research Centre of Lower Saxony (EFZN) was commissioned to identify possible courses of action for the federal state of Lower Saxony. The starting point was the study "Costs and potentials of the avoidance of greenhouse gas emissions in Germany", which was carried out by McKinsey on behalf of "BDI initiativ - Wirtschaft für Klimaschutz" in 2007. The EFZN study is based on known data and measures to avoid greenhouse gas emissions with regard to Lower Saxony's potential and summarises CO2 emissions and energy consumption in the fields of renewable energies and combined heat and power generation, buildings, trade, commerce and services, transport and agriculture. This provides the first indications of cost-effective starting points for a state-wide climate protection programme.

  • Feasibility study for scientific continuing education for specialists and executives in the region of Southern Lower Saxony
  • Duration: 2008
    Funding: Europäische Union, Fonds für regionale Entwicklung (EFRE)
    Coordination: Kooperationsstelle Hochschulen und Gewerkschaften Universität Göttingen
    Location: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

    The aim of the project was to explore and identify relevant topics concerning the need for further scientific training in the economy of southern Lower Saxony and to develop selected offers. The Chair of Production and Logistics contributed its expertise in the logistics sector.

  • European approach to nuclear and radiological emergency management (EURANOS)
  • Duration: 2004 - 2008
    Funding: EU-Project, 6th Framework Programme
    Collaborators: Rentz, O.; Bertsch, V.; Geldermann, J.
    Coordination: KIT (Wolfgang Raskob)
    Location: Universität Karlsruhe (TH, jetzt KIT Karlsruher Institut für Technologie)

    The Integrated Project EURANOS, through the commitment of fifty operational emergency management organisations, 'stakeholder groups" and competent RTD institutes of many European countries, develops a fully interactive framework for initiating and promoting practical improvements of emergency management and rehabilitation strategies in Europe. The project has the following objectives: (A) creating better communication links between those responsible for nuclear and radiological emergency management in European countries with the perspective of fast notifications, information exchange and interaction through more direct channels; (B) providing better coherence and transparency in decision processes on local, national and border crossing interventions as one input to improving public understanding and acceptance of off-site measures; (C) supporting decisions on effective and timely emergency actions and countermeasures in case of nuclear or radiological emergencies by access to reliable, consistent and comprehensive information, and in this way mitigating radiological and economic consequences; (D) developing a coherent framework for the sustainable rehabilitation of living conditions in contaminated areas by implementing integrated and decentralised approaches involving key stakeholders and the public. The research team lead by Jutta Geldermann contributed its expertise in multi-criteria decision support.

  • Integrated process design for cross-company plant planning in dynamic material flow networks
  • Duration: 2004 - 2006
    Funding: VolkswagenStiftung (Fächerübergreifende Nachwuchsförderung in der Umweltforschung)
    Collaborators: Geldermann, J.; Treitz, M.; Schollenberger, H.; Rentz, O.
    Location: Universität Karlsruhe (TH, jetzt KIT Karlsruher Institut für Technologie)

    In this research project, a method for integrated process design for cross-company plant planning in dynamic material flow networks is being developed and applied to case studies in Chile and China. To this end, existing approaches in industrial engineering (in particular operations research) and process engineering (energy optimisation and plant design) are being further developed. First, dynamic technology adaptation with the help of BAT (best available techniques) and then dynamic capacity planning are investigated. Based on this the pinch analysis and its further development to an integrated process design will be analyzed and adapted for the optimization of material flow networks. The simultaneous use of energy, water and solvents as target parameters in process optimization poses a multi-criteria process design problem. The expected overlaps of the identified solutions will be ranked with the help of Operations Research.

  • Decision support for the selection of a production concept in the automobile industry
  • Duration: 2004 - 2006
    Funding: Im Auftrag eines europäischen Automobilherstellers
    Collaborators: Rentz, O.; Treitz, M.; Geldermann, J.
    Location: Universität Karlsruhe (TH, jetzt KIT Karlsruher Institut für Technologie)

    The aim of the project was to support the decision-making process for a concept development for the implementation of innovative coating technologies for an automotive manufacturer. The Karlsruhe research team provided its knowledge on current scientific developments in the area of multi-criteria decision support, its experience in conducting moderated workshops and its technical competence, especially in the area of paint application and BAT identification

  • SMS-VOSLESS (Implementation of solvent management systems as trans-national approach to reducing solvent emissions in some industrial sectors)
  • Duration: 2004 - 2006
    Funding: EU Project - Community Initiative INTERREG III B (2000 – 2006)
    Collaborators: Rentz, O.; Ludwig, J.; Hubert, I.; Geldermann, J.
    Coordination: Province of Forli-Cesena
    Location: Universität Karlsruhe (TH, jetzt KIT Karlsruher Institut für Technologie)

    With the implementation of the Solvents Emissions Directive (Directive 1999/13/EC), which aims to reduce the direct and indirect effects of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the environment, several industrial sectors need to act. In particular, many companies are required to introduce environmental management plans, known as solvent management plans. In this EU project, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have been selected for pilot studies in the participating countries. The results obtained and the knowledge gained can be transferred to other companies in the same industrial sector. To this end, production processes in the following sectors were examined: Coating of different types of surfaces, surface degreasing, shoe production, car repair, chemical cleaning and production of coating products.

  • Libre Software Methods for E-Education (EDUKALIBRE)
  • Duration: 2003 - 2005
    Funding: Europäischen Kommission (SOKRATES Programm)
    Collaborators: Geldermann, J.; Treitz, M.; Rentz, O.
    Location: Universität Karlsruhe (TH, jetzt KIT Karlsruher Institut für Technologie)

    Edukalibre is a project aimed at the promotion of information and communications technology in education. Its main goal is to explore new ways of producing educational materials, based in the practices and procedures observed in the libre (free, open source) software development community. Some of the key aspects being explored are collaborative development, the interaction with users, and the use of version control systems for documentation, in the context of the educational communities. In the end, the tools and procedures for the creation of educational materials are proposed. Edukalibre is the international project including the partners from universities and educational institutions of Spain, Portugal, Germany, UK, Switherland and Czech Republic. The research team lead by Jutta Geldermann contributed its knowledge in University teaching of Production Management and developed prototypes in an early version of Moodle, a free and open-source learning management system written in PHP and distributed under the GNU General Public License.

  • Towards Electronic Democracy (TED): Internet Based Complex Decision Support.
  • Duration: 2002 - 2005
    Funding: European Science Foundation Programme
    Collaborators: Geldermann, J.; Treitz, M.; Rentz, O. - In Kooperation mit Universidad Rey Juan Carlos (Madrid), Sytems Analysis Lab
    Location: Universität Karlsruhe (TH, jetzt KIT Karlsruher Institut für Technologie)

    Coherent analysis and evaluation of complex decision problems necessarily involve the weighing of multiple sources of uncertainty, highly conflicting objectives, time-evolving and multi-faceted preferences, and the integration of opinions and desires of disparate stakeholder groups. Our overall objective is to develop Bayesian methodologies and computational tools for the rational, inclusive, analytic support of such decisions. Their development, we believe, will do much to enable true mechanisms of e-democracy.
    Our intention is to draw on the modern methods of decision analysis and group decision support, deployed over the WWW, in order to involve the public in decisions that affect them. More than electronic referenda, our vision sees stakeholders helping to shape options, sharing perspectives, discussing and evaluating pros and cons, facing up to uncertainty and moving towards a balanced conclusion.

  • Integrated Decision Support for Complex Issues in the Environmental Domain
  • Duration: 2002 - 2004
    Funding: Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst und das British Council
    Collaborators: Geldermann, J.; Rentz, O.; Papamichail, N.; French, S.
    Location: Universität Karlsruhe (TH, jetzt KIT Karlsruher Institut für Technologie)

    The assessment of industrial techniques and investments under environmental, technical and economic criteria requires coherent evaluation. Especially in much environmental decision making there is a need to address many complex interacting issues: highly conflicting criteria; multiple sources of uncertainty; many stakeholder groups with a variety of complex, time evolving and multi-faceted preferences and beliefs; difficulties of communication between the decision makers, stakeholders, experts and other interested parties.
    In this project, we discuss formal methods for multi-criteria decision support, interactive graphical presentation and artificial intelligence based explanation systems together with the pervasive access to the Internet now offer ways in which decision theory can be used for integrated technique assessment, encouraging constructive discussion and debate between the many parties to the process of decision making.

  • EU-Project ISACOAT (Integrated Scenario Analysis of Metal COATing)
  • Duration: 2001 - 2004
    Funding: Europäische Kommission (DG RTD Materials)
    Collaborators: Geldermann, J.; Schollenberger, H.; Wenzel, S.; Rentz, O.
    Location: Universität Karlsruhe (TH, jetzt KIT Karlsruher Institut für Technologie)

    The research team led by Dr. Jutta Geldermann coordinates this thematic network of the EU with 14 project partners. The aim of ISACOAT is the experience exchange between research institutions, paint manufacturers and coatings industry with regard to possible perspectives and future scenarios for the metal coating sector. With the implementation of the EU Solvents Directive, solvent emissions must be reduced for many industrial paint applications. However, the use of substitute paint products requires the modification of the whole plant and process technology - the entire organization and structure of the industry will change. Therefore, the EU project ISACOAT examines actual examples from the following sectors: vehicle series coating, car refinishing, coating of agricultural and other machinery, small parts (contract coating) and construction, among others by means of life cycle assessments. In an integrated scenario analysis, four conceivable development possibilities for the industry are conceived and analysed. Since the various actors in the sector are involved, the project's findings are not limited to individual companies, but take into account the value chain and the entire life cycle of the products. The project results are made available to politicians and industry to support them in decisions on (environmental) policy measures, investments or the initiation of research and development activities.

  • EVATECH: Information Requirements and Counter-measure Evaluation Techniques in Nuclear Emergency Management
  • Duration: 2001 - 2004
    Funding: Europäische Kommission (5. Rahmenprogramm)
    Collaborators: Rentz, O.; Treitz, M.; Geldermann, J.
    Coordination: Kooperation mit STUK (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki)
    Location: Universität Karlsruhe (TH, jetzt KIT Karlsruher Institut für Technologie)

    EVATECH, Information Requirements and Countermeasure Evaluation Techniques in Nuclear Emergency Management, was a research project in the fifth Framework Programme of the EU, aiming for the enhancement of the quality and coherence of the response to nuclear and radiological emergencies in Europe. The objective of EVATECH was to improve the decision support methods, models and processes in ways that take into account the expectations and needs of different stakeholders participating in decision making to protect members of the public and workers in a nuclear emergency situation. The project had ten partners from seven European countries.

  • Time and Motion Study for Vehicle Refinishing in Franchised Dealers’ Body Shops
  • Duration: 2001 - 2003
    Funding: Verband der Automobilindustrie (VDA) unter Beteiligung der Marken Audi, BMW, Ford, Opel, Porsche, Volkswagen
    Collaborators: Rentz, O.; Schollenberger, H.; Geldermann, J.
    Location: Universität Karlsruhe (TH, jetzt KIT Karlsruher Institut für Technologie)

    Vehicle refinishing is obliged to introduce product-integrated reduction measures in the form of solvent-reduced paint systems. Their application influences the work processes, so that modifications are necessary. In this project, initiated by the Working Coating of the German Association of the Automotive Industry (VDA), studies of one week duration were carried out in 28 body shops across Europe, franchised by Audi, BMW, Ford, Opel, Porsche and Volkswagen (VW). The objective of the project was the design of a software-based tool capable of calculating the time requirements for vehicle refinishing depending on the degree of damage. For this purpose the scope of work as well as the corresponding time and material needs have to be depicted while also taking into consideration waterborne paints. In addition, the differences between the body shops, with respect to work procedure and equipment, were to be highlighted. In addition to the analysis and identification of improvement potentials of the workflow in the refinishing industry, recommendations for the practical implementation of the proposed measures are given.

  • VOC reduction potential in the transport and handling of petroleum products using tank-wagons
  • Duration: 2002 - 2003
    Funding: Umweltbundesamt Berlin
    Collaborators: Joas, R. ; Schott, R. ; Peters, N.-H. ; Geldermann, J. ; Rentz, O.
    Coordination: BiPRO (München)
    Location: Universität Karlsruhe (TH, jetzt KIT Karlsruher Institut für Technologie)

    The Gothenburg Protocol of the UN/ECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) and the NEC Directive (Directive on National Emission Ceilings for Certain Atmospheric Pollutants 2001/81/EC) have obliged Germany to comply with emission limits for VOCs (volatile organic compounds). VOC emissions also originate from the handling and transport of mineral oil products, whereby the combination of the emission-relevant factors "quantity handled", "technology used" and "vapour pressure" results in possible reduction potentials for petrol as the most important mineral oil product. Therefore, the aim of the research project was to quantify the current VOC emissions associated with tank-wagons and to develop appropriate measures to avoid and reduce emissions. The internal cleaning of tank wagons should also be included.

  • Solvent balance and reduction plan for small and medium-sized motor vehicle refinishing companies, computer-aided and written aid to action
  • Duration: 2001 - 2002
    Funding: Ministerium für Umwelt und Verkehr Baden-Württemberg (Stuttgart)
    Collaborators: Rentz, O.; Avci, N.; Geldermann, J.
    Location: Universität Karlsruhe (TH, jetzt KIT Karlsruher Institut für Technologie)

    The VOC Directive (1999/13/EC) regulates, among other things, the use of solvents in vehicle refinishing. As a consequence, new requirements apply to all vehicle refinishing companies in Germany. Accordingly, paint shops must be constructed and operated in such a way that certain emission limits are not exceeded. Otherwise, a so-called reduction plan is required with which an emission reduction of at least the same amount as if these requirements were met must be achieved. Furthermore, compliance with the VOC limit values must be verified at least once a year by a solvent balance. The aim of this project, commissioned by the state of Baden-Württemberg, is to provide assistance for the optimal implementation of the requirements in the form of a computer program and a practical guideline for the preparation of a solvent balance.

  • Study to identify reductions in VOC emissions due to the restrictions in the VOC content of products
  • Duration: 2001 - 2002
    Funding: Europäische Kommission (DG ENV) - EU Tender ENV.C.1/ETU/2001/0069 R
    Collaborators: Joas, R.; Schott, R.; Peters, N.; Wenzel, S.; Geldermann, J., Rentz, O.
    Coordination: BiPRO (München)
    Location: Universität Karlsruhe (TH, jetzt KIT Karlsruher Institut für Technologie)

    The reduction of emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) has been an important objective of EU environmental policy, especially since the Council Directive 1999/13/EC on the limitation of emissions of volatile organic compounds due to the use of organic solvents in certain activities and installations. These actions were mainly focusing on production processes and their emissions. Products containing VOC have not yet been a major objective of EU regulation. In the field of products, so far only the decorative paint sector and products for the vehicle-refinishing sector have been analysed. Against this background it is an important aim of this project to collect data and information by meetings and interviews with associations and individual companies and by literature and internet investigation, in order to give an overview to all relevant product groups containing VOC. Since substitution of VOC is possible for quite a lot of products, it is another important aim of the project to identify priorities and to demonstrate the corresponding reduction potentials based on technical feasibility and market demand. Following basic data, forecasts to 2010 and costs of abatement are given, being a necessary information for decision making.

  • Proposal for an action plan to reduce emissions of ozone precursors NOx and VOC in Austria by 2010
  • Duration: 2001 - 2002
    Funding: Umwelt- und Wirtschaftsministerium Wien
    Collaborators: Joas, R.; Schott, R.; Wenzel, S.; Avci, N.; Geldermann, J.; Rentz, O.
    Coordination: TÜV Bayern Landesgesellschaft Österreich GmbH
    Location: Universität Karlsruhe (TH, jetzt KIT Karlsruher Institut für Technologie)

    The UN/ECE Gothenburg Protocol, signed by Austria in December 1999, sets national emission ceilings for several air pollutants, including NOx and anthropogenic VOCs. At EU level, the "Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on emission ceilings for certain atmospheric pollutants" (NEC Directive) contains national emission ceilings for the 15 EU Member States as well as the obligation to present plans to ensure compliance with the emission ceilings by 2010 at the latest. Emissions of the two air pollutants have decreased continuously in recent years. Further reductions are expected in the future, but not to the extent necessary to comply with the emission ceilings under the Protocol and the EU Directive.
    Against this background, an important objective of this project is to develop an action plan for the reduction of NOx and VOC for the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW). This plan must ensure that the emission ceilings for Austria specified in the Gothenburg Protocol and in the planned NEC Directive will not be exceeded in 2010, taking into account feasibility and effectiveness.

  • Development of a efficient system for multi-criteria decision support
  • Duration: 2000 - 2002
    Funding: Bundesministeriums für Wirtschaft und Technologie (BMWi)
    Collaborators: Rentz, O.; Geldermann, J.; Avci, N.; Goedecke, W.D.
    Location: Universität Karlsruhe (TH, jetzt KIT Karlsruher Institut für Technologie)

    Complex decisions often exceed the so-called "common sense" of the decision makers, because too many aspects and information have to be considered simultaneously. In addition to classic applications, for example in political committees, supervisory boards of large companies, etc., the problem of decision-making in teams increasingly affects medium-sized companies as well.
    Various systems have already emerged on the market for congresses and similar events in order to conduct a wide variety of question modes in a defined environment, such as grouping, voting, evaluation, Pro&Contra, opinion polls and learning success monitoring, ranking, shoot-out, portfolio as well as strength and weakness analysis. In this research and development project, the primary goal is to devise a mobile system that will enable a heterogeneous and not necessarily spatially concentrated decision-making team in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) to take complex decisions efficiently, objectively and completely homogenised in a team, taking into account many different criteria.

  • Integrated environmental protection in certain industrial activities within the framework of the IPPC Directive: solvent-relevant surface treatment plants in the range of paint and adhesive applications in Germany
  • Duration: 1999 - 2002
    Funding: Umweltbundesamt Berlin
    Collaborators: Rentz, O.; Peters, N.-H.; Nunge, S.; Geldermann, J.
    Location: Universität Karlsruhe (TH, jetzt KIT Karlsruher Institut für Technologie)

    The IPPC Directive 96/61/EC on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control requires EU Member States to contribute to the exchange of information on best available techniques (BAT). In addition to the energy industry, production and processing of metals, the mineral processing industry, the chemical industry and waste treatment, the list of other industrial sectors also includes solvent-relevant surface treatment plants.
    In this research project, the national state of the art for the integrated prevention and reduction of environmental pollution in surface treatment using organic solvents for the application of paints and adhesives in Germany was determined.
    In order to describe the environmentally relevant input and output streams, the technical processes and procedures currently in use are comprehensively analysed. The process steps of pre-treatment, coating and post-treatment are identified on the basis of the throughput of the workpieces or surfaces in one or more typical plants and the associated mass and energy flows are described. In addition, technical options for the prevention and reduction of environmental pollution, if available, are characterized.

  • Development of a practical guideline for the improved use of water-based paints in small and medium-sized enterprises in the automotive refinishing sector
  • Duration: 2000 - 2001
    Funding: Ministerium für Umwelt und Verkehr Baden-Württemberg (Stuttgart)
    Collaborators: Rentz, O.; Avci, N.; Geldermann, J.
    Location: Universität Karlsruhe (TH, jetzt KIT Karlsruher Institut für Technologie)

    In the last few years, the supplier industry has developed various low-emission materials and technologies according to the state of the art for the small and medium-sized enterprises involved in the refinishing of passenger cars and commercial vehicles. To date, more than 50% of VOCs (volatile organic compounds) were emitted in solvent applications, with paint processing accounting for the largest share. The aim of the project is to increase the acceptance of the use of water-based paints and other low solvent/free auxiliaries by developing a practical guideline for the different applications of water-based paints and low solvent/free auxiliaries. This manual is intended to provide specific assistance for car refinishing companies in Baden-Württemberg. A particular focus of the project is the dissemination of knowledge and findings on the use of water-based paints through the organisation and implementation of workshops for the companies concerned.

  • Development of a practice-oriented guideline for the introduction of an in-house energy and material flow management at a medium-sized industrial paint shop for small parts in Baden-Württemberg.
  • Duration: 2000 - 2001
    Funding: Landesanstalt für Umweltschutz Baden-Württemberg (LfU Karlsruhe)
    Collaborators: Rentz, O.; Nunge, S.; Geldermann, J.
    Location: Universität Karlsruhe (TH, jetzt KIT Karlsruher Institut für Technologie)

    A aim of this project is the development of a practice-oriented tool for the efficient organization of the operational material and energy flows for enterprises within the range of the industrial and job coating. In close co-operation with a selected painting enterprise, the Stoz GmbH in rotting castle, by internal optimization of the material and energy input as well as by product and technology innovations, reduction potentials from environmental and economic point of view are identified. At the same time, the requirements of the EU Eco-Audit Regulation and ISO 14000 series are fulfilled. The results are illustrated in a practice-oriented guideline, in order to identify in the future also in other enterprises of the industrial and job coating further emission reduction and savings potentials.

  • Study for the implementation and development of an internet based information exchange between Member States, the European Commission and the activities concerned on the use of organic substances and their potential substitutes according to article 7 Directive 1999/13/EC
  • Duration: 2001
    Funding: Europäische Kommission (DG ENV)
    Collaborators: Rentz, O.; Avcι, N.; Geldermann, J.
    Location: Universität Karlsruhe (TH, jetzt KIT Karlsruher Institut für Technologie)

    VOC (volatile organic compounds) are emitted inter alia by a variety of solvent using activities, such as coating, surface degreasing, dry cleaning, etc., which are regularly carried out in small enterprises. The operators of such installations are often unaware of possible emission reduction measures. Moreover, the Directive 1999/13/EC of the European Union lays down emission limit values for twenty different categories of installations using solvents. These limit values are determined depending on the applied production process and the installation capacity. Therefore, companies are obliged to take measures in the near future to reduce emissions.
    In comparison to larger companies, small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) are generally not very well informed about the measures which could help them to reduce their emissions, because of their limited personal size and cash flow. Therefore, the objective of this EU project is to create an information exchange forum based on internet which provides high quality, focused information for all users affected by the Solvent Directive. In close cooperation with the industry and the EU, generic guidance is provided which is applicable to all sectors encompassed by the Directive, allowing all alternative methods of meeting emission limits to be clearly represented. Special emphasis is put on advice geared towards practical help for the operator including case studies.

  • Material flow management for small and medium-sized companies in the automotive refinishing sector
  • Duration: 1997 - 2000
    Funding: Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (BDU)
    Collaborators: Rentz, O.; Blümel, F.; Lonjaret, J.-P.; Geldermann, J. (DFIU/IIP); Große Ophoff, M. (Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt)
    Location: Universität Karlsruhe (TH, jetzt KIT Karlsruher Institut für Technologie)

    At the German-French Institute for Environmental Research (DFIU/IFARE) of the University of Karlsruhe, the mass and energy flow model IMPROVE (Individual computer aided mass and energy flow model for the vehicle refinishing sector) was developed for the more efficient management of operational mass and energy flows in car refinishing. The comprehensive research report describes practice-oriented instruments for vehicle paint shops to improve the efficiency of their material and energy flows in order to identify cost and emission reduction potentials and to meet the requirements of new environmental legislation.

  • Proposal for an integrated approach for the assessment of cross-media aspects relevant for the determination of ‘Best Available Techniques’ BAT in the European Union
  • Duration: 1996 - 1998
    Funding: Umweltbundesamt Berlin
    Collaborators: Rentz, O.; Geldermann, J.; Jahn, C.; Spengler, T.
    Location: Universität Karlsruhe (TH, jetzt KIT Karlsruher Institut für Technologie)

    The main objective of developing a methodology for assessing BAT (Best Available Techniques according to IPCC Directive 96/61/EC concerning Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control) is a site-independent, sectoral determination of BAT at EU level. Thereby an integrated consideration of the impact of the techniques on the environment as a whole and in particular on the environmental media air, water and soil as well as the efficiency of energy use is to be ensured. In accordance with the requirements of the IPPC Directive, the evaluation must, among others, observe the internationally relevant environmental quality standards and should be supplemented by locally particularly relevant parameters for certain installations without abandoning the principle of site-independent assessment. In a second step, the methodology should be supplemented by appropriate specifications to enable the meaningful local application of BAT.
    The proposed integrated assessment method for the identification of BAT at EU level corresponds to the structure of a life cycle assessment (LCA) due to its organisation into first screening, material and energy balance, impact assessment and multi-criteria decision support. The expert discussion, which can take place at EU level, e.g. within the framework of the work of the "Technical Working Groups", is an integral part of the method. The aim of the method is to direct the discussion towards the central questions of technology selection. Once the BAT determination is obvious, the procedure can be completed at each of the four evaluation steps.

  • Development of a multi-criteria decision support system for the optimal allocation of production-integrated measures for environmental protection in the iron and steel industry
  • Duration: 1995 - 1998
    Funding: Volkswagenstiftung
    Collaborators: Rentz, O.; Spengler, T.; Geldermann, J.
    Location: Universität Karlsruhe (TH, jetzt KIT Karlsruher Institut für Technologie)

    A comprehensive evaluation of investment projects includes not only the consideration of technical and economic criteria, but also the resultant environmental impact. Therefore, a multi-criteria decision support system is developed and its application shown in a case study from the iron and steel industry. Various scenarios for process-integrated environmental protection are used as a basis for decision-making. These scenarios are simulated in terms of process technology and their material and energy balances are compiled. For multi-criteria decision support the outranking method PROMETHEE is applied and refined due to the extended preference term and the flexibly adaptable algorithm. Thus, a fuzzified PROMETHEE algorithm for the evaluation of fuzzy criteria and weightings by means of L-R fuzzy intervals is presented and applied in order to achieve the most extensive utilization of the available knowledge from the process simulations of innovative environmental protection techniques. Furthermore, a graphical sensitivity analysis for the outranking method PROMETHEE is newly developed. A graphical evaluation of the multi-criteria analysis offers a ranking of the investigated environmental protection measures, indicates further information needs and serves as a basis for final discussions among experts.